Background: For the rehabilitation of stroke patients, it is necessary to confirm the differences in the mechanical properties of the paretic- and non-pareticside masseter muscles.
Objectives: To investigate the muscle tone and stiffness of masseter muscles in patients with chronic stroke.
Design: A case study.
Methods: This study included 20 stroke patients. Muscle tone and stiffness of the paretic and non-paretic masseter muscles in stroke patients were measured using MyotonPRO. Measurements were performed under relaxation and masseter muscle contraction conditions.
Results: There was no significant difference in the muscle tone and stiffness of the paretic and non-paretic side masseter muscles in the relaxation conditions (P>.05). In male, left hemiplegia, right hemiplegia and infatction, the nonparetic side masseter muscles showed significantly increased than musle tone and stiffness of the paretic side masseter muscles in the contraction (P<.05). In female and hemorrhage, the non-paretic side masseter muscles showed significantly increased than musle tone the paretic side masseter muscles in the contraction (P<.05).
Conclusion: The muscle tone and stiffness were lower on the paretic side than on the non-paretic side during masseter muscle contraction in stroke patients; thus, muscle strengthening training was required.
Background: A weight-bearing jacket during treadmill gait training is being used for rehabilitation in stroke patients. However, the effect on various gait parameters has not been confirmed.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparison of exercise intensity through speed increase and weight-bearing jacket during treadmill gait training to restore gait ability in stroke patients.
Design: Randomized controlled trials.
Methods: This study recruited 24 stroke patients. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (wearing a weight-bearing jacket during treadmill gait training, n=12) and the control group (speed increase during treadmill gait training, n=12). Gait measurement device (G-walk) was used to measure the gait parameters of the subjects.
Results: Both the experimental group and control group showed a significant increase in cadence, gait speed, stride length, and gait symmetry index post intervention (P<.05). In comparison between the two groups, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the gait symmetry index post the intervention than the control group (P<.05).
Conclusion: Through this study, it was found that wearing a weight-bearing jacket was a more effective method for improving the gait symmetry index than increasing speed during treadmill gait training in stroke patients.
Background: Height is an important factor in determining a person’s appearance, so people often wear height increase elevator shoes insoles (HIESI) or high heels to make themselves look taller. However, high heels often act as a risk factor for musculoskeletal diseases.
Objectives: To investigated how muscle tone and muscle stiffness in the lumbar region of young adult men varied according to the height of the HIESI, and analyzed the correlation.
Design: Non-randomised trial. Methods:
Muscle tone and muscle stiffness in the upper and lower lumbar regions of 20 healthy young adult men in an upright standing position were measured as the subjects wore no insoles and 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm insoles.
Results: Muscle tone and muscle stiffness in the lumbar region did not show a significant change according to the increased height of the HIESI. However, a positive correlation was observed when the subjects wore 4 cm HIESI, as there was a significant increase (P<.05) in muscle tone and stiffness in the left side of the upper lumbar region and in the right side of the lower lumbar region.
Conclusion: Wearing HIESI for short periods of time in the static standing position did not cause a change in muscle tone and muscle stiffness in the lumbar region. However, wearing 4 cm HIESI demonstrated a correlation of increased muscle tone and stiffness in the upper and lower lumbar regions in an asymmetric manner.
Background: Total hip replacement (THR) is performed in patients with femur fractures and osteoarthritis. THR patients have balance problems even after surgery. There is a lack of research on vibration stimulation interventions for balance in THR patients.
Objectives: To investigated the effect of vibration stimulation intervention on the balance and gait of THR patients.
Design: Randomized controlled trials.
Methods: 44 subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration stimulation group (VSG) and a non-vibration stimulation group (N-VSG). Seven study subjects dropped out, and 37 completed the study. Timed up and go (TUG) and Berg balance scale (BBS) were used for balance assessment, and 10-meter walk (10MW) was used for gait assessment. The intervention program was conducted three times a week for 4 weeks.
Results: Significant differences within the groups in balance (BBS, TUG) and gait (10MW) between the VSG and the N-VSG. There was no difference between the two groups in any variable.
Conclusion: The VSG improved the balance and gait of THR patients without any difference from the N-VSG. However, VSG showed a higher effect size than N-VSG.
Background: In order to improve the daily life of stroke patients, it is necessary to restore walking performance. Improving gait performance is one of the main goals for stroke rehabilitation.
Objectives: To investigate the change in gait parameters through evaluation of one stroke patient before, during, and after wearing the weight vest.
Design: A case study.
Methods: This study is an ABA study design. In principle, one assessment per day (A1) was measured three times without wearing the weight vest. Intervention assessment (B) was performed 6 times while wearing the weight vest. The second baseline evaluation (A2) was measured three times with the weight vest removed again.
Results: The gait speed was increased when the weight vest was removed than when the weight vest was worn. Also, gait symmetry increased when wearing the weight vest.
Conclusion: Wearing the weight vest can reduce the gait asymmetry in stroke patients and increase the gait speed after wearing the weight vest.
Background: Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) is an educational approach that deals with the physiology of the nervous system as well as the pain system and refers to educating patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders such as chronic back pain.
Objectives: This study examined the effects of pain neuroscience education on patients with low back pain.
Design: Systematic review.
Methods: Electronic bibliographic databases of a regional information sharing system (RISS) and PubMed were searched to identify randomized controlled studies. In the final outcome, 43 publications were identified, and 13 studies met the inclusion criteria.
Results: There were a total of 13 pain-related studies, including 11 studies using NPRS (VAS) and 2 studies using other pain measurement instruments. In NPRS, the effect size was 0.683, which had a medium effect size. In Roland morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), the effect size was 0.544, which had a medium effect size. In Oswestry disability index (ODI), the effect size was 0.951, indicating a large effect size, but the confidence interval could not be obtained because there was only one study.
Conclusion: Pain neuroscience education has positive effects on low back pain and disability index in related patients.
Background: The application of exercise therapy and manual therapy to the thoracic spine is a widely used method of treating neck pain. Nevertheless, studies on the application of foam rollers and vibrating foam rollers to patients with neck pain are lacking.
Objectives: To investigated the immediate effects of thoracic spine foam rolling and vibration foam rolling on pain and range of motion (ROM) in patients with chronic neck pain.
Design: Randomized crossover trials.
Methods: 24 patients with chronic neck pain participated in the study. The study subjects measured pain and ROM. Subjects were divided into vibration foam roller group, foam roller group, and control group.
Results: Pain was not significantly different between and within groups (P<.05). There was a significant difference in flexion, extension, left rotation, and right rotation ROM in the vibration foam roller group after intervention (P<.05). There was a significant difference in flexion and extension ROM in the foam roller group after intervention (P<.05). There was a significantly greater increased extension ROM in vibration foam roller and foam roller groups compared with the control group (P<.0167).
Conclusion: Thoracic spine foam rolling and vibration foam rolling improve ROM when treating patients with chronic neck pain. Therefore, it is recommended to use it in combination with other treatments
Background: After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many changes in education were observed, particularly non-face-to-face classes. Many studies have focused on the suitability of non-face-to-face classes and the satisfaction of both students and teachers with this teaching method. However, no study on the suitability of numerous teaching methods in teaching physical therapy subjects has been conducted.
Objectives: To investigated the suitability of three teaching methods, namely, face-to-face, non-face-to-face, and mixed classes, in teaching physical therapy subjects.
Design: Survey research.
Methods: 336 students studying physical therapy participated. A survey was conducted on the suitability of face-to-face, non-face-to-face, and mixed classes for 16 subjects. The survey was conducted using a Google questionnaire.
Results: Face-to-face classes were found to be suitable for teaching the basic fields of physical therapy, and face-to-face and mixed classes were suitable for teaching the principle of diagnostic evaluation. Furthermore, faceto- face classes were found to be suitable for teaching physical therapy interventions. In other subjects, face-to-face classes were suitable for teaching rehabilitation medicine, non-face-to-face classes were suitable for teaching medical terms, and mixed classes were suitable for teaching daily life activities.
Conclusion: The results of this study can be used as a basis for choosing the appropriate methods for learning and teaching physical therapy subjects.
Background: Elastic and non-elastic taping are widely used in clinical practice, but there are various methods of attachment.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of the type and intensity of taping on the muscle strength and muscle endurance of healthy adults.
Design: Experimental research.
Methods: 38 healthy adults participated in this experiment. Before applying the taping to each participant, the muscle strength and endurance of the quadriceps femoris were measured. After applying three different taping intervention methods, muscle strength and muscle endurance changes were measured. Muscle strength and endurance were measured through CSMI. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistics on participant measurements.
Results: All intervention methods influenced the muscle strength improvement of the quadriceps femoris. Elastic tape with 50% elasticity had a greater impact on muscle strength than 33% elastic tape and non-elastic tape, and secondly, elastic tape with 33% elasticity was effective, and non-elastic tape had the least impact. Muscle endurance improvement was affected by the order of 50% elasticity taping, 33% elasticity taping, and non-elastic taping.
Conclusion: All three taping intervention methods showed significant effects on improving muscle strength and muscle endurance of the wide-legged quadruple muscles, but the best effect was to apply 50% elastic taping.
Background: Clinical practice guidelines for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) recommend therapeutic exercise, and recently, interventions for pain neuroscience education (PNE) are also recommended.
Objectives: To investigate the effects of aquatic exercise combined with PNE on pain, disability, and fear-avoidance beliefs in patients with CLBP.
Design: Randomized control trial.
Methods: The 27 participants recruited in this study were randomly allocated as pain neuroscience education combined with aquatic exercise group (PAEG, n=14) and aquatic exercise group (AEG, n=13). Both groups performed aquatic exercise for 50 minutes, 3 times a week for 6 weeks, and only PAEG received additional PNE. Numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), modified oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ), and fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) were used as evaluation methods before and after intervention.
Results: Statistically significant decrease in NPRS, MODQ and FABQ (physical activity and work score) before and after intervention in PAEG. However, there were statistically significant changes in NPRS, MODQ and FABQ (physical activity score) before and after intervention in AEG. PAEG and AEG before and after intervention indicated statistically significant differences in MODQ and FABQ (work score).
Conclusion: Aquatic exercise combined with PNE improved disability (MODQ) and fear-avoidance beliefs (FABQ) has been shown to have additional benefits. Therefore, combining PNE as a clinical intervention for CLBP patients will enhance the therapeutic effect.