Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer primarily affecting women and negatively impacting the individuals, families, and the health care system. Despite the well-known benefits of exercise for breast cancer survivors, rate of physical activity declines during adjuvant therapy and may not return to pre-diagnosis levels. In addition, low levels of adherence to exercise have been observed in this cohort. The challenge is to identify strategies that are effective in promoting exercise adherence. Several of the studies use social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework to design exercise interventions that encourage adherence. Within and without this framework, they have implemented interventions within the home and gym-based environments. Strategies used to encourage adherence to exercise programs and which are readily implemented in most situations have included distribution of print materials and pedometers, as well as recommendation from the oncologist. Other strategies that may be less feasible have included provision of trainers, gym memberships, regular phone-calls, and psychologist-lead stress management sessions.
This study is intended to examine the motor skill learning and treadmill exercise on motor performance and synaptic plasticity in the cerebellar injured rats by harmaline. Experiment groups were divided into four groups and assigned 15 rats to each group. GroupⅠ was a normal control group(induced by saline); GroupⅡ was a experimental control group(cerebellar injured by harmaline); GroupⅢ was a group of motor skill learning after cerebellar injured by harmaline; GroupⅣ was a group of treadmill exercise after cerebellar injured by harmaline. In motor performance test, the outcome of groupⅡ was significantly lower than the groupⅢ, Ⅳ(especially groupⅢ)(p<.001). In histological finding, the experimental groups were destroy of dendrities and nucleus of cerebellar neurons. GroupⅢ, Ⅳ were decreased in degeneration of cerebellar neurons(especially groupⅢ). In immunohistochemistric response of synaptophysin in cerebellar cortex, experimental groups were decreased than groupⅠ. GroupⅢ's expression of synaptophysin was more increased than groupⅡ, Ⅳ. In electron microscopy finding, the experimental groups were degenerated of Purkinje cell. These result suggest that improved motor performance by motor skill learning after harmaline induced is associated with dynamically altered expression of synaptophysin in cerebellar cortex and that is related with synaptic plasticity.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of manipulation on the velocity of cerebral blood flow and level of pain in cervicogeinc headache patients. The velocity of cerebral blood flow of 30 cervicogeinc headache patients(male=15, female=15, age=24.00±3.60) and 33 normal subjects(male=15, female=18, age=23.27±3.00) was compared. The 30 cervicogeinc headache patients were divided into suboccipitalis relaxation group, cervical manipulation group, and placebo group, and each were given different interventions. The velocity of cerebral blood flow and pain level was measured before intervention, and 1, 2, 3 weeks after intervention. The velocity of cerebral blood flow was measured with the Transcranial Doppler(TCD), and pain level was measured with visual analog scale(VAS). Blood flow velocity of middle cerebral artery in cervicogeinc headache patients was slower than those in healthy subjects. Physical therapy intervention did not have significant effect on velocity of cerebral blood flow, but slowly decreased at intervention for pain level increased. The suboccipitalis relaxation group and cervical manipulation group showed significant effect in decreasing pain level compared to the placebo group(p＜.05). Directly applied manipulation therapy in the neck area not only has effect on joint of cervical and soft tissue but also on blood vessels and nerves which pass the neck area, and because of those results of manual therapy seems to help recovery.
The majority of strokes are caused by ischemia and result in brain tissue damage, leading to problems of the central nervous system including hemiparesis, dysfunction of language and consciousness, and dysfunction of perception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP) on necrosis in neuronal cells that have undergone needle electrode electrical stimulation(NEES) prior to induction of ischemia. Ischemia was induced in male SD rats(body weight 300g) by occlusion of the common carotid artery for 5 min, after which the blood was reperfused. After induction of brain ischemia, NEES was applied to Zusanli(ST 36), at 12, 24 and 48 hours. Protein expression was investigated using immuno-reactive cells, which react to PARP antibodies in cerebral nerve cells, and Western blotting. The results were as follows: In the cerebral cortex, the number of PARP reactive cells after 24 hours significantly decreased(p<.05) in the NEES group compared to the GI group. PARP expression after 24 hours significantly decreased(p<.05) in the NEES group compared to the GI group. As a result, NEES showed the greatest effect on necrosis- related PARP immuno-reactive cells 24 hours after ischemia, indicating necrosis inhibition, blocking of neural cell death, and protection of neural cells. Based on the results of this study, NEES can be an effective method of treating dysfunction and improving function of neuronal cells in brain damage caused by ischemia.
The purpose of this study was to determine the difference of the pinch strength according to testing posture(standing and sitting) and elbow flexion degree(0。, 45。, 90。and 135。). Forty normal young adults(male: 20, female: 20, mean age: 22.68±2.91 years) participated in this study. The methods of this study were categorized as follows: 1) One set of measurement was performed on four elbow flexion degrees(0。, 45。, 90。and 135。) in two testing postures(standing and sitting) and all subjects were measured for 3 sets testing procedures in every experimental sessions. 2) Pinch strength in various elbow flexion degree was measured after 2 min rest time, and then each test set was repeatedly performed with 5 min rest time to prevent fatigue of muscles involved in the elbow joint. The result was obtained as follow: 1) In standing posture, there was statistically significant difference at 0。and 45。, 0。and 90。, 0。and 135。, 45。and 90。, 45。and 135。, 90。and 135。. 2) In sitting posture, there was statistically significant difference at 0。and 45。, 0。and 90。, 0。and 135。, 45。and 90。, 45。and 135。, 90。and 135。. 3) Statistically, there was no significant difference between standing and sitting posture in same elbow flexion degree, however pinch strength in standing posture was higher than sitting posture.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of treadmill walking in underwater and overground which affects gait and physical function of people who have had a stroke. Twenty people after a stroke who have become hemiplegic over 6 months were participated. Participants were divided into two groups: underwater treadmill group(UTG) and overground treadmill group(OTG). The intervention was done 4 times per weeks for 6 weeks and 1 session lasted for 30 minutes. Gait and physical function elements were measured at baseline, at the middle(3 weeks) and at the end of the intervention(6 weeks). For the elements of gait, walking velocity, affected stance phase, affected weight bearing were assessed. For the elements of physical function, Short Form 8(SF-8) health survey was used. The result of this study showed that both groups improved similarly in walking velocity. However participants in UTG improved more than those in OTG in affected stance phase(p<.05), affected weight bearing( p<.05) and emotional aspect(p<.001). Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested that treadmill walking both in underwater and on the ground can be effective in improving hemiplegic gait and physical function of people who have had a stroke. The result also suggest that the underwater treadmill exercise can be more effective than overground treadmill in restoration of gait in people after stroke.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of closed and open kinetic chain exercise for increasing knee joint function on the knee position sense in the normal adults. Thirty normal adults(male 15, female 15; mean age: 22.13±2.58 years) were participated in this study into two groups, each with 15 people. The group I was trained that closed kinetic chain exercise on the knee joint and the group II was trained that open kinetic chain exercise on the knee joint. Exercise programs performed for 4 weeks, 3 times a week were using Shuttle 2000-1 closed kinetic chain exercise and Knee Extensor open kinetic chain exercise(HUR, Filand). The results of this study were as follows: 1) There were statistically significant decreasing of measuring error degree in 0-20。were found between before and after training in closed kinetic chain exercise(p<.05). 2) There were statistically significant decreasing of measuring error degree in 21-40。were found between before and after training in closed kinetic chain exercise(p<.05). 3) There were statistically significant decreasing of measuring error degree in 41-60。were found between before and after training in closed kinetic chain exercise(p<.05). 4) There were statistically significant decreasing of measuring error degree in 0- 20。were found between before and after training in open kinetic chain exercise(p<.05). 5) There were statistically significant decreasing of measuring error degree in 21-40。were found between before and after training in open kinetic chain exercise(p<.05). 6) There were statistically significant decreasing of measuring error degree in 41- 60。were found between before and after training in open kinetic chain exercise(p<.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that closed and open kinetic chain exercise has increased in the knee joint proprioception between before and after training. Especially, closed kinetic chain exercise could be more useful intervention than open kinetic chain exercise for increasing proprioceptive sense.
This study aims to reveal how EA affects BAX and NF-kB involved in cell deaths from global ischemia, and to do this, observes the changes of BAX and NF-kB caused by EA application after transient global ischemia. The experimental method is to give rise to global ischemia and apply EA to 27 SD rats with the particulars of being six-week-old, male, around-300 gram-weighing, and adapted to laboratory environment for more than a week, and divide them into three groups, that is, GV20 EA group(n=9), L14 EA group(n=9), no-treatment GI group(n=9), and then observe their changes of BAX and NF-kB at the time lapse of 6 hours, 9 hours and 12 hours after ischemia, using western blotting. The numerical decrease of BAX expression at the time lapse of 9 hours after EA application, though not statistically significant, was observed in GV20 EA group and L14 EA group, and the NF-kB expression appeared statistically significant decrease in GV20 EA group and L14 EA group, but the expression was higher in the group with EA application. Therefore, EA application at the early phase of global ischemia is considered to affect BAX and NF-kB and play a positive role in decreasing apoptosis and cell deaths by inflammation.
The present study examined the effects of functional electrical stimulus( group 1), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation(group 2) and combined training of functional electrical stimulus and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation(group 3) with scapula adductor muscles on scapula movement, upper limb function and gait in fifteen subjects stroke patients. The training was thirty minutes a day, five times a week for six weeks, obtained result as follow, upper limb function was significant difference in the group 2(p<.05) but no significant difference in other groups. The change of weight bearing were significant difference in all the groups(p<.05), and increase of gait velocity were significant difference in all the group(p<.05). In conclusion, when applied with functional electrical stimulus, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and combined training to the scapular adductor muscles, it was oberved in the course of the experiment that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation was the most effective treatment among the three methods applied to the scapula adductors.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of swiss ball exercise and taping therapy on back muscle strength on normal college students. The aim of this study was to find effective method for back muscle strengthening. Subjects of 30 college students divided 3 groups(taping therapy group: 10, swiss ball group: 10, control group: 10). All subjects inquired physical conditions and normal exercise habits for data base. Back muscle strength measured before and after 3 weeks intervention. Taping therapy was displayed stable a growth curve in continuative a growth graph of back muscle strength better than swiss ball exercise, because it was taping therapy by periodic effect. The result of this study known to effective either taping therapy or swiss ball exercise, but both taping therapy and swiss ball exercise were effect to increase in back muscle strength.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of subliminal music with balance imagery training on balance and concentration. Methods: The participants were 45 seniors in an undergraduate school in Korea. The subliminal music with balance imagery training intervention was carried out for 20 minutes. Other interventions were also carried out for 20 minutes. 12 seniors(Group A) listened to subliminal music with balance imagery training, 12 seniors(Group B) listened to subliminal music, 11 seniors(Group C) received balance imagery training, and 10 seniors(Group D) had no intervention(Control group). The grid test is related to measured levels of concentration intensity. Romberg one legged standing test was carried out for 30 seconds. The collected data was analyzed by one-paired t test and one way ANOVA using the SPSS Windows 12 ver. program. Results: The major findings of this study were as follows: Concentration levels of Group A and C improved, and balance levels of Group C and D improved. There was a statistically significant decrease in concentration between Group A and B, Group A and C after intervention. Conclusion: These findings suggest that listening to subliminal music with balance imagery training may be useful in managing concentration in seniors. So it provides basic information for further concentration on improving education on music with balance imagery training.
Low back pain is a common phenomenon among the golfers. In an attempt to understand low back pain, the kinematic changes and golf swing motion analysis has been performed to focus on lumbar spine in pro. golfers. According to the swing pattern, significant variations of the lumbar joint forces and loads has related with muscles activities so the motion analysis of lumbar spine were discussed. The purpose of this study was to analyze motion of lumbar spine and it was to compare joint force during golf swing in pro. golfers. The swing motion of the subjects was tracked using a 3D motion analysis system by Motion Analysis Ltd. and SIMM software. The angle changes of lumbar spine rapidly in vx direction during the top back swing and the finish and in vy direction during the follow through and in vz direction during the down swing and the impact(Subject A). The angle changes of lumbar spine rapidly in vx direction during the top back swing and in vy direction during the down swing, the impact and the follow through and in vz direction during the down swing(Subject B). In conclusion, subject A and B both show sudden angle changes between 1st-3rd lumbar spine and 4th-5th lumbar spine during the stage from address to top back swing which caused by over upper body twisting.
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the effect of resistance exercise and balance exercise on proprioception and WOMAC index of patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis. A total of 40 subjects participated in this study. The subjects were diagnosed with degenerative knee osteoarthritis and all were more than 60 years old. They were divided into three groups. Group Ⅰ(n=8) was trained with resistance exercise, Group Ⅱ(n=6) was trained with balance exercise and GroupⅢ(n=6) was trained with range of motion as a control. The results of this study were as follows. It was significantly indicated that the resistance exercise group and balance exercise group elicited error-reduction on proprioception goal-angle (p<.05). There was a statistically significant difference on proprioception between resistance exercise group and control(range of motion) group. There was a statistically significant reduction on WOMAC index between resistance exercise group and balance exercise group (p<.05) and on the WOMAC index between resistance exercise group and range of motion group(p<.05). In conclusion, resistance exercise and balance exercise are effective on degenerative knee osteoarthritis and resistance exercise is the most effective for improving proprioception and WOMAC index. More research on the intervention according to the degree of degenerative knee osteoarthritis is needed.
This study was to investigate the effects of upper and lower limb composing patterns of PNF(proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) on the static balance ability by 20 subjects for 6 weeks. This study was measured left one leg standing and right one leg standing with closed eyes on Good Balance system. These results led us to the conclusion that the mean speed of X, Y direction, COP(center of Pressure) velocity moment showed a statistical decrease when applying post-exercise. The above results from this study indicated that upper and lower limb composing patterns of PNF exercise has improved the static balance ability. As a result, this study showed that upper and lower limb composing patterns exercise improve the ability of balance in young adults. Based on this study, it may be applied to old people.
Background: This study investigated effective posture for gluteus medius rehabilitation training and effects of isometric muscle activity by electrophysiology through EMG while performing dynamic isotonic behavior of weight placed differently on upper limbs. Method: 16 healthy male subjects 20 to 29 years of age volunteered for the study. Lateral stabilizer right gluteus medius activity was assessed using EMG while the right lower extremity maintains single limb support, and the left upper extremity elevation movement maintains 5 seconds without load, 1RM to 1 repetition, 5RM to 5 times, 10RM to 10 times, 5RM and 10RM maintain 5sec. Results: Comparison of the mean value of EMG data showed a statistically more significant difference in upper extremity elevation movement on opposite upper extremity added weight than one that was not added on a single limb weight bearing posture(p>.05). Weight supported side gluteus medius activity for 1RM, 5RM, 10RM weight difference and movement repetition did not differ(p>.05). Comparison in maximum value showed statistically significant differences in not adding weight on upper limb elevation exercise and 1RM, 5RM, 10RM repeated behavior. Elevation behavior and repetition appeared over 70% of MVIC. Conclusion: Unilateral weight bearing stance added weight in the opposite upper limb elevation movement was an indirect exercise to effectively stimulate gluteus medius activity. Applying various added weight will have effective exercise on the early stages of rehabilitation because activity gluteus medius did not differ through added weight.