This study was conducted to examine the effects of Evjenth-Hamberg stretching of the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and pectoralis major on the lung function of adults with forward neck posture. The subjects were 20 adult students in P university located in Pohang, Korea, whose degree of head forward displacement measured according to NEW YORK state posture test was mild. The subjects were randomly and equally assigned to the Evjenth- Hamberg Stretching group (EHSG, n=10) and the control group (CG, n=10). Their forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured before and after the experiment. In within-group comparison, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in FVC, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEE) after the experiment, compared to before the experiment (.05<p). In between-group comparison, the PEE of EHSG was statistically significantly higher than CG (.05<p). Regarding SVC, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in inspiratory vital capacity after the experiment, compared to before the experiment. With regard to MVV, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in their tidal volume during maximal voluntary ventilation after the experiment compared to before the experiment. Our results indicated that Evjenth- Hamberg stretching was an effective physical therapy intervention to improve the lung function of adults with FHP by correcting their head forward displacement.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Silver Spike Point (SSP) on functional constipation. The subjects were 14 female students who attended a university located in Gyeonggi province and consent to participate in this study. The inclusion criteria were the fulfillment of two or more diagnostic criteria of Rome III or scoring four or more points in Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS). The CAS score was significantly decreased in the experimental group (from 14.29±1.38 to 6.86±2.91) (p<.05), however, there was no significant change in the control group (from 14.29±1.49 to 14.14±1.21). The present study suggests that SSP intervention is effective in mitigating constipation.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of kinematic taping therapy on menstrual distress, pain, and prostaglandinF2α. The experimental subject was a 24 years old woman with the pain of over 5 points on the dysmenorrhea measurement test and no unusual reactions on the taping test. The menstrual distress was measured by the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), and the dysmenorrhea was measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before and after the intervention. The prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) was measured on the first day of menstruation before the intervention and 24 hours after the taping therapy by the blood test. The intervention of kinematic taping was conducted by the instructor of the International Kinematic Taping Academy, and the taping was applied to the lower abdomen and the waist. According to the difference of menstrual distress before and after the intervention, the menstrual distress turned out to be decreased to 96 points after the intervention from the 115 points before the intervention. The dysmenorrhea also reduced 3 points on the VAS from 7 points to 4 points before and after the intervention. The PGF2α decreased from 26pg/㎖ to 20pg/㎖ before and after the intervention. Besides, the PGF2α decreased from 26pg/㎖ to 20pg/㎖ before and after the intervention. Results suggest that kinematic taping therapy could be useful to reduce the menstrual distress, pain, and PGF2α.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of central posteroanterior mobilization on the pain, muscle tone, flexibility of trunk flexion, lumbar lordosis in patient with chronic back pain has been studied. The target subject was a 23 year old man, who had chronic back pain without surgical history within six months. The pain has been indicated by the pressure pain threshold, when the subject was pressed his spinous process of L3-L1 by the pressure of grade Ⅳ. The muscle tone, elasticity, and stiffness were measured by the MYOTONEⓇ PRO, and the flexibility of trunk flexion was evaluated by the distance from the figure tips to the floor, when subjects flexed their body. The lumbar lordosis was measured from the X-ray picture. The lumbar central posteroanterior mobilization of Maitland orthopedic physical therapy has been applied to the spinous process of L3-L1 in grade Ⅳ by five sets and 10 times for each set. According to the measurement result right after the intervention, the pain decreased from 2/10 to 1/10 based on the visual analogue scale. The flexibility of trunk flexion (distance from the finger tips to the floor) increased The muscle tone decreased from 15.3 to 14.65 and the muscle stiffness also decreased 53.5 from 310 to 256.5. However, the muscle elasticity increased from 0.89 to 1.04 and there was no changed on the lumbar lordosis as 25°. The results of the present study suggest that the central posteroanterior mobilization decrease the pain, muscle tone, and muscle stiffness of the lumbar area, however increase the muscle elasticity and flexibility of the trunk flexion.
This study used both kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shock wave therapy on patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder - a common musculoskeletal disorder in adults - in order to observe the effects on the joint range of motion. 21 adult(male 12, female 9) were selected and distributed into randomized groups. One group received kinesiotaping (n=10) and the other group received kinesiotaping together with extracorporeal shockwave therapy (n=11). After a 6 week duration of receiving kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shockwave therapy, changes in the joint range of motion in the patients were observed. Post-treatment of frozen shoulder, the changes in abduction within the shoulder joint were as follows: in both groups there was a noticeable increase in the joint range of motion (p<.05). Post-treatment of frozen shoulder, the changes in external rotation within the shoulder joint were as follows: both groups showed a significant increase in the joint range of motion (p<.05). The result of suggest that, it can be inferred that both the extracorporeal shockwave therapy and kinesiotaping are effective in increasing the joint range of motion in patients with frozen shoulder.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy and ball exercise on women experiencing menstrual discomforts, thereby identifying the validity of these methods as interventions against menstrual discomforts, with a particular goal of presenting basic data for clinical use. Twenty university students in their 20s were assigned to two therapy groups in a sequence via simple random sampling; ten subjects attended a ball exercise combined with music therapy group and the other ten subjects attended a music therapy group. Ball exercises were conducted 3 times per week for a total of 12 times, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Similarly, the subjects participated in music therapy by listening to music for 35 minutes per session and 3 sessions per week, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Five out of six categories of menstrual discomforts were significantly decreased in both music therapy and ball exercise, the exception being changes in the autonomic nervous system, while those in the music therapy group showed a significant difference only in the category of behavioral changes. The results of the present study demonstrate that the ball exercise combined with music therapy more effective in improving menstrual discomforts than the music therapy group.
The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of Maitland orthopedic manual therapy, Silver Spike Point, dietary fiber and gymnastic exercise on the improvement of constipation. Forty patients with constipation participated in the study (Maitland Orthopedic Manual Therapy Group(n=10), Silver Spike Point Therapy Group(n=10), Dietary Fiber Group(n=10) and Gymnastics Exercise Group(n=10)). The assessment scale and weekly bowel frequency were measured before and after the experiment. Assessment scale was significantly increased in Silver Spike Point Therapy, Maitland orthopedic therapy, gymnastic exercise compare to dietary fiber. Weekly bowel frequency was significantly increased in gymnastic exercise compared to dietary fiber. The results of this study suggest that Silver Spike Point Therapy, Maitland orthopedic therapy, gymnastic exercise improve the symptom in patients with constipation.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of continuous muscle strengthening applied to the antagonist of the sternocleidomatoid, upper trapezius, and pectoralis major, which are the shortened muscles of forward head posture(FHP) subjects, and Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(EHS) applied to the shortened muscles on changes in pressure pain threshold(PPT). Twenty subjects were divided into the continuous antagonist strengthening( CAS) group(n=10) and the EHS group(n=10), and each group performed its respective exercise three times a week for a six week period. The results were as follows: The comparison of changes in PPT within each group before and after the treatment showed a statistically significant difference( p<.05) according to the treatment period and a statistically significant difference according to the treatment period and method(p<.05). While the comparison of the tests of between subjects effects between the groups did not show a statistically significant difference, the CAS group exhibited better effects. The above results suggest that the combined application of CAS and EHS generates better effects on changes in PPT than the single application of EHS. Given that stretching and muscle strengthening exercises even for the short research period of six weeks could change the PPT, continuous exercises and a correct postural habit for a longer period of time are likely to help prevent chronic pain and correct FHP
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Ankle exercise on balance ability of stroke patients. Participants' balance ability were measured prior to the training and they conducted ankle exercise. As for ankle exercises, ankle stretching training and ankle muscle strengthening training were performed for 10 minutes respectively. They did warm up exercise for 5 minutes and then ankle exercise for 20 minutes. And then they did cooldown exercise for 5 minutes. Their balance ability was measured after 9 weeks. According to the results of analyzing the change of balance ability that timed up and go and Berg balance scale score significantly improved but in the control group it did not significantly decrease. In comparison between the groups, Berg balance scale score significantly improved in the ankle exercise group compared to the control group. Ankle exercise performed by stroke patients are considered to be effective in improving balance ability.
The purpose of the present study is to apply Maitland orthopedic manual physical therapy to patients to examine the effects of the therapy on the digestive system through serum gastrin tests that can identify the motility of the digestive system and dyspepsia symptoms and can provide basic data for internal medicinal physical therapy. Maitland orthopedic manual physical therapy was implemented on 20 subjects in total, with 10 in a dyspepsia group and 10 in a control group, for 20 minutes per day, three days per week for three weeks, and the following results were obtained. In the control group, serum gastrin values significantly decreased between before and after treatment(p<.01), and among questionnaire items regarding dyspepsia, those regarding epigastric pain and belching showed significant decreases in these symptoms(p<.05). In the dyspepsia group, serum gastrin values significantly decreased between before and after treatment(p<.01) and all questions regarding dyspepsia showed significant decreases in all symptoms(p<.01). According to the analysis, the dyspepsia group decreased significantly more than the control group in serum gastrin values and all dyspepsia symptoms, except for belching(p<.001). Through the present study, it was identified that Maitland orthopedic manual physical therapy can improve dyspepsia symptoms and is an effective treatment method for internal diseases, such as dyspepsia, by improving gastric motility to become close to the normal state.
The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of elasticity of taping on ankle muscles’activity and endurance after plyometric training that easily causes ankle injury, and provide baseline data for physical therapy intervention methods. The study subjects are 24 male students in their 20s who attend N University in Choongnam. They were divided into three groups; 8 subjects in the elastic taping group, 8 in the non-elastic taping group, and 8 in the non-taping group(control group). They had plyometric training for 6 weeks. After the training, this study measured their maximum voluntary isometric contraction(MVIC) and muscle endurance of the muscles around ankle joint. The experiment result is as follows. After the training, all three groups showed improvement in muscle strength and endurance. The elastic taping group showed insignificant improvement in muscle strength but significant increase in muscle endurance in plantarflexion. In dorsiflexion, both muscle strength and endurance increased significantly. The non-elastic taping group showed insignificant improvement in muscle strength but significant increase in muscle endurance in plantarflexion. Taping during plyometric training had a little or insignificant effect on muscle endurance and strength compared to the non-taping group.
This study aims to identify the effect of home physical therapy on patients who left the hospital after total knee arthroplasty, compared to the Daily living group, when it was applied to them, under the guidance of physical therapists. As research subjects, 20 patients that were scheduled to leave the hospital after unilateral total knee arthroplasty, were chosen, and they were randomly divided into a home physical therapy group(10 patients) and an Daily living group(10 patients) in order to conduct an experiment. During the 4-week research, home physical therapy was offered for 40 mins once for 5 days a week, and muscular strength, gait components were measured. For muscular strength, quadriceps muscle strength, hamstring muscle strength were measured, and as gait components, endurance, speed, step time, single-limb support were analysed. For this experiment, pre- and post-measurement were performed, and collected data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 18.0 statistical program. From the analysis of data, the following study results were obtained. Home physical therapy group and Daily living group both showed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength, hamstring muscle strength, and quadriceps muscle strength, hamstring muscle strength of home physical therapy group more significantly improved than Daily living group's. In relation to gait components, gait endurance, gait speed, step time significantly improved in both of home physical therapy group and Daily living group, whereas home physical therapy group only showed significant improvements in single-limp support. According to the comparison between two groups, gait speed, single-limp support and step time improved more significantly in the home physical therapy group than in the Daily living group. In conclusion, positive results were revealed in both home physical therapy group and Daily living group, with regard to muscular recovery of lower limbs of patients discharged from the hospital after total knee arthroplasty and walking, but considering the comparison results between two groups, it seems that applying home physical therapy is more effective than maintaining a daily life.
This study is a cross-sectional study for conscripts with chronic low back pain, where it is designed to investigate general characteristics that conscripts with chronic low back pain carry, and it is also aimed to analyze the correlation as well as discrepancy within pain, depression and body mass index depending on their ranks. In this study, 90 Korean conscripts with chronic low back pain participated. And in order to analyze general characteristics as well as pain, depression and body mass index of the subjects, this study adopted a survey questionnaire upon general characteristics, and it also employed Visual Analogue Scacle(VAS) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression(CES-D) Scale which have proven their credibility, where BMI values for the subjects were calculated based on 'Asian Pacific standard' Body Mass Index(BMI). From the general characteristics exhibited by the subjects through this study, average age and average height of the subjects were 20.78±1.41 and 175.97±5.34 respectively; and corporals displayed the highest ratio of 42% with the chronic low back pain while 40% of the total subjects experienced the duration of the illness less than 6 to 9 months. Moreover, 57.8% of all subjects were reportedly suffering moderate pain, and 48% exhibited depression while 49% carried BMI value between 18.5 and 22.9kg/m2(normal range). Based on the analysis of correlation among pain, depression, discrepancy of BMI depending on the ranks and each independent variable, it appears that there is no significant difference amongst the ranks, and there is no correlation between independent variables; however, it was obvious that all groups divided by the ranks had a moderate pain(45-74mm), depression(≥16) and BMI value in normal range(18.5-22.9).
The purpose of this study is to observe how balance exercise on an unstable platform and on a stable platform affects balance ability. The subjects were 35 adults in their 20s and were randomly assigned to a stable platform group and an unstable platform group. They performed balance exercise three times per week for six weeks. Balance exercise introduced by previous research was modified and complemented for use in this study. Balance ability of the subjects was measured through center of pressure(COP) area, medial-lateral displacement, and anterior-posterior displacement using a portable balance platform BT4. There was significant difference in the COP area between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group. In comparison in differences between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group after the exercise, there was significant difference in anteriorposterior movement. Therefore, exercise on an unstable platform is more effective than exercise on a stable platform in strengthening balance ability.
The fact that flip-flops, one of many different types of unstable shoes, are light and relatively easy to put on, accounts for their popularity among people. But because flip-flops rely heavily on the support of a single thong between your first and second toes, they impose a huge amount of pressure onto lower leg. Thus in the following experiment we tried to examine the different effects of flip-flops and running shoes in terms of their effect on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius during walking. In order to measure an electromyogram we used Free EMG system. 10 men and 10 women in running shoes ran on treadmills for 15 minutes at 4.8km/h, 2 days later the same experiment was carried out, but this time, in flip-flops. p value turned out to be greater than .05 and thus there was no considerable difference between the effects of flip-flops and running shoes on muscle activity and fatigue during walking. Therefore we conclude that despite the fact that flip-flops are considered unstable, their effects on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius are negligible.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback breathing exercise on respiratory muscle activity. Thirty stroke patients were randomly and equally assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received rehabilitation exercise treatment for 30 minutes and feedback respiratory exercise for 30 minutes and the control group received rehabilitation exercise treatment for 30 minutes and conducted motomed exercise for 30 minutes. All of them conducted exercises five times per week for four weeks. Respiratory muscles including the upper trapezius(UT), longissimus dorsi(LD), rectus abdominis(RA), external abdominal oblique(EAO) and, internal abdominal oblique(IAO) were measured using MP 150WSW prior to and after the experiment. Regarding pulmonary functions prior to and after the experiment, the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections but the control group did not show significant differences in any sections. As for in-between group differences after the experiment, there were significant differences in the UT, LD, RA, and IAO but no significant differences in the EAO. In conclusion, respiratory muscle activity was more effective for the experimental group than the control group. It is considered that feedback respiratory exercise may induce improvement in respiratory muscles in stroke patients through feedback breathing exercise.
This study has investigated the effect of isometric contractile force and muscle activity applying sperficial heat according to the time from the biceps brachii muscle. In this study, 20 university students participants without musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. By applying a hot pack 5min, 10min, 20min and 30min respectively. After that measurement are skin temperature, contractile force and muscle activity. Skin temperature of the hot 5 min applied that rapidly changing. Increasing the time it takes to apply a variance has been reduced(p<.001). Isometric contractile force was not statistically significant but highest when applying the hot pack 5 minutes and lowest when applying the hot pack 30 minutes(p<.001). Muscle activity and median frequency was highest when applying the hot pack 5 minutes. To analyze the above results, it was found that isometric contractile force and muscle activity changed according to the applying time. These result lead us to the conclusion that this study will be more evidence for changes in muscle contraction to apply hot pack on clinic.
This study aims to address the effect of interferential current therapy and thereby to provide basic resources to physical therapies for internal medicine by identifying symptoms for functional dyspepsia and serum gastrin level that shows gastric motility. Following results were obtained by performing interferential current therapy to 16 subjects composed of 8 for functional dyspepsia group and 8 for control group for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. In control group, serum gastrin level was significantly( p<.01), lowered after the therapy whereas there was no significant difference observed in all questions from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. In functional dyspepsia group, serum gastrin level was significantly(p<.01), lowered after the therapy and there was also significant(p<.01) reduction in every question from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. There was more significant decrease in serum gastrin level and reduction in questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the functional dyspepsia group compared to the control group(p<.01). This study confirms the interferential current therapy as an effective therapeutic method for internal diseases including functional dyspepsia since it not only improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia but also allows the gastric motility close to normal.
The Goal of this study was to assess the effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive function of elderly people. The participants' cognitive functions were measured before exercise. Exercise was practiced three times a week for nine weeks. The aerobic exercises consisted of warm-up exercises for five minutes followed by cycling for 30 minutes. The exercise intensity was set to 65%~75% of the intensity for the maximum heart rate(220-age). The control group did not perform any exercises. The subjects' cognitive functions were measured nine weeks later. In the aerobic exercise group, between before and after the exercises, significant increases appeared in total K-MMSE scores and scores of some sub items comprising memory registration, concentration and calculation abilities but not in other items. In the control group, no significant differences appeared in any items between before and after the experiment. In a comparison between the aerobic exercise group and the control group, significant differences appeared in total K-MMSE scores and scores of two sub items comprising concentration and calculation abilities but not in other items(p<.05). Aerobic exercises were effective in the improvement of cognitive functions and among sub items of cognitive functions, concentration and calculating abilities were improved. Aerobic exercises performed by elderly persons are considered to be effective in improving cognitive functions.
This study examines the effects of different environments on the application of hemiplegia patients circuit balance training. Group 1 performed circuit balance training without any auditory intervention Group 2 performed training in noiseless environments and Group 3 performed training in white noise environments. First, among lower extremity muscular strength evaluation items, maximum activity time(MAT) was not significantly different(p>.05). Maximum muscle strength(MMS) increased significantly in Group 3(p<.01), there was no significant difference in MMS among the groups. Average muscle strength(AMS) indexes also significantly increased in Group 3(p<.01), there was no significant difference in AMS among the groups. Second, among balancing ability evaluation items, Berg's balance scale(BBS) scores significantly increased in all groups(p<.05), BBS scores were significantly difference among the groups. Based on the results, Group 1, 2 and Group 1, 3 showed significant increases (p<.05). Functional reach test(FRT) values significantly increased in Group 2, 3(p<.05), and there was no significant difference in FRT values among the groups. Timed up and go(TUG) test values significantly decreased in Group 2, 3(p<.05), and there was no significant difference in TUG test values among the groups. Third, among walking speed evaluation items, the time required to walk 10m significantly decreased in all groups(p<.05), and there was no significant difference in the values among the groups. Average walking speeds showed significant increases in Group 1, 3(p<.05), and there was no significant difference in the values among the groups. Based on the results of this study, noise environments should be improved by either considering auditory interventions and noiseless environments, or by ensuring that white noise environments facilitate the enhancement of balancing ability.