Few studies address the use of manual muscle stretching to improve spinal active range of motion(AROM). There is evidence that‘ Hold-Relax’(HR) is effective for increasing ROM in the extremities, which leads the researchers to anticipate similar benefits in the spine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of HR(trunk flexors) and active thoracic flexion and extension on thoracic mobility, specifically flexion and extension in healthy individuals. A convenience sample of 30 physical therapy students(22-38 years) were randomly assigned to intervention sequence ‘A-B’ or ‘B-A’, with at least 7 days between interventions. Intervention‘ A’ consisted of HR of the ventral trunk musculature while ‘B’ consisted of thoracic flexionextension AROM. Thoracic flexion and extension AROM were measured before and after each intervention using the double inclinometer method. Paired t-tests were used to compare AROM pre and post-intervention for both groups, and to test for carry-over and learning effects. There was a statistically significant increase(mean=3° ; p=0.006) in thoracic extension following HR of the trunk flexors. There were no significant changes in thoracic flexion following HR, or in flexion or extension following the AROM intervention. No carryover or learning effects were identified. HR may be an effective tool for improving AROM in the thoracic spine in pain free individuals. Further investigation is warranted with symptomatic populations and to define the minimal clinical difference(MCD) for thoracic spine mobility.
The present study purposed to examine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, self-stretching and functional massage on the recovery of muscle contraction force for muscle fatigue caused by sustained isotonic contraction. The subjects of this study were 45 healthy students. They were divided into transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group(n=15), self-stretching group(n=15) and functional massage group(n=15), and using Primus RS. We observed the pattern of changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction force(MVIC) after causing muscle fatigue in quadriceps femoris muscle through sustained isotonic contraction. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction force(MVIC) were greatly increased after transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, self-stretching and functional massage. In the comparison of recovery rate of muscle contraction force for muscle fatigue caused by sustained isotonic contraction among the treatment groups, it did not show any significant differences. However, it showed that each treatment may be effective in recovery of muscle fatigue caused by sustained isotonic contraction.
Ischemia, the leading cause of strokes, is known to be deeply related to synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in tissue damage due to ischemic conditions or trauma. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of NEES(needle electrode electrical stimulation) in brain cells of ischemiainduced rat, more specifically the effects of Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase(PARP) on the corpus striatum. Ischemia was induced in SD mice by occluding the common carotid artery for 5 minutes, after which blood was re-perfused. NEES was applied to acupuncture points, at 12, 24, and 48 hours post-ischemia on the joksamri, and at 24 hours postischemia on the hapgok. Protein expression was investigated through PARP antibody immuno-reactive cells in the cerebral nerve cells and western blotting. The number of PARP reactive cells in the corpus striatum 24 hours post-ischemia was significantly(p<.05) smaller in the NEES group compared to the global ischemia(GI) group. PARP expression 24 hours post-ischemia was very significantly smaller in the NEES group compared to the GI group. Results show that ischemia increases PARP expression and stimulates necrosis, making it a leading cause of death of nerve cells. NEES can decrease protein expression related to cell death, protecting neurons and preventing neuronal apoptosis.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the exercise on elderly balance ability by using hippotherapy and therapeutic ball exercise. 10 patients were assigned to the hippotherapy group and they got with 30 minutes of hippotherapy. Another 10 elderly were assigned to the therapeutic ball group and they got with 30 minutes of therapeutic ball exercise. All procedures were repeated 5 times a week for the total of four weeks. To investigate the participants balancing abilities, the Time“ Up & Go”(TUG) and One Leg Stand Test(OLST) were evaluated. The results of study were significant differences between pre-test and post-test of TUG and OLST(p<.05), and there were no significant differences between hippotherapy and therapeutic ball exercise(p>.05). The conclusion showed that both the hippotherapy and the therapeutic ball exercises were effective on elderly balancing ability. Consequently, it would be better to practice therapeutic ball than hippotherapy for elderly exercise because the more economical and there is less restriction of space than the hippotherapy.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of lower extremity resistance training using elastic bands on balance in elderly people. Eight elderly persons each were randomly assigned to a test group(resistance exercise group, REG) or a control group(CG). FRT and TUG test were used to compare balance before and after exercise. Exercise programs were implemented three times a week for 40 minutes for nine weeks. They did warm-up exercise for 5 minutes and then lower extremity resistance exercise using elastic bands for 30 minutes. And then they did cool-down exercise for 5 minutes. TUG and FRT significantly decreased but in the control group it did not significantly decrease. In comparison between the groups, TUG and FRT significantly reduced in the resistance exercise group compared to the control group. Lower extremity resistance training using elastic bands performed by elderly persons are considered to be effective in improving balance.
This study aims to examine the effects of taping of the ankle joint on the static and dynamic balance and gait ability of stroke patients. Twenty-six stroke patients receiving physical therapy at a hospital located in Gyeonggi-do were divided equally into a group that had taping in physical therapy and an ordinary physical therapy group. They exercised for 30 minutes each, 3 times per week for 8 weeks from June to August 2011. Romberg’s eye open and eye closed tests, limits of stability(LOS), forward and back test, timed up and go test(TUG) and 10-meter gait velocity test were performed to evaluate static balance, dynamic balance, and gait ability, respectively, prior to and 8 weeks after the intervention. Differences within each group in relation to the lapse of time were compared by a paired t-test. Differences between the two groups were compared by an independent t-test. Regarding comparison of differences within each group, all tests resulted in significant changes in both groups after the intervention (p<.05). Comparison of differences between the two groups showed that taping in the physical therapy group had significantly better test results than the ordinary physical therapy group in all measured items(p<.05). The after effects of ankle taping on stroke patients are more efficient and effective than ordinary physical therapy alone in improving balance and gait ability.
The Goal of this study was to assess the effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive function of elderly people. The participants' cognitive functions were measured before exercise. Exercise was practiced three times a week for nine weeks. The aerobic exercises consisted of warm-up exercises for five minutes followed by cycling for 30 minutes. The exercise intensity was set to 65%~75% of the intensity for the maximum heart rate(220-age). The control group did not perform any exercises. The subjects' cognitive functions were measured nine weeks later. In the aerobic exercise group, between before and after the exercises, significant increases appeared in total K-MMSE scores and scores of some sub items comprising memory registration, concentration and calculation abilities but not in other items. In the control group, no significant differences appeared in any items between before and after the experiment. In a comparison between the aerobic exercise group and the control group, significant differences appeared in total K-MMSE scores and scores of two sub items comprising concentration and calculation abilities but not in other items(p<.05). Aerobic exercises were effective in the improvement of cognitive functions and among sub items of cognitive functions, concentration and calculating abilities were improved. Aerobic exercises performed by elderly persons are considered to be effective in improving cognitive functions.
This study is to examine the effects of a feedback breathing device exercise and diaphragm breathing exercise on pulmonary functions of chronic strokes patients. The selection of 20 subjects was divided equally and placed into a experiment group and a control group and the intervention was applied four times per a week for five weeks. In each session, both groups received rehabilitative exercise treatment for 30 minutes, and a feedback breathing device exercise for 15 minutes. In addition, experimental group conducted a combination of diaphragm breathing exercise for 15 minutes. Prior to and after the experiment, patients’ pulmonary functions were measured using a spirometer. The pulmonary function tests included FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, VC, TV, IC, ERV, IRV. With respect to changes in the pulmonary functions of both groups, the experimental group significantly differed in FVC, FEV1, TV, ERV but did not in PEF, FEV1/FVC, VC, IRV. The control group did not significantly differ in any of the tests. There were significant differences in FEV1, FEV1/FVC, TV, ERV between the two groups, but no significant differences in FVC, PEF, FEV1/FVC, VC, IRV between them after the experiment. The experimental group, which conducted a combination of a feedback breathing device exercise and diaphragm breathing exercise, saw their respiratory ability increase more significantly than the control group. The breathing exercise was found to improve pulmonary function in chronic stroke patients.
The objective of this study is to provide basic information on coupled motions in thoracic spine during lateral bending from a neutral position for football and baseball players as well as for general university students. In the experiment, a total of 30 subjects participated(football players: 10, baseball players: 10, general students: 10). All subjects were in their 20’s. The subjects sat on a chair with lumbar support in a neutral position and bent to the right. As a result, for baseball players, coupled motions were observed in the opposite direction of the lateral bending in all parts of thoracic spine. For both football players and general students, coupled motions were observed in the same direction. These results confirmed that unilateral movements like baseball could affect coupled motions.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between the stature and the muscle performance ratings and the subjective discomfort rations at performing lower arm's pronation and supination according to change sin the height of working table for more efficient performance at designing a working table and performing a work. For the purpose, this study conducted an experiment targeting 40 people in their 20s, who were classified into 4 groups each group composing 10 people at intervals of 5cm from the standard stature of 166.5cm. The experiment measured the maximum isometric pronation and the supination muscular power, and at measuring the factors, the heights of working tables were set as 800mm, 850mm, and 900mm. From the measurement results, it was found that the stature and the maximum muscular power was correlated. That is, as the experiment groups's average stature is higher, the maximum muscular power was higher. For the correlation between the motion patterns(pronation and supination) and the maximum muscular power, it was seen that the maximum muscular power was higher at performing the pronation than the supination. In the correlation between motion patterns and the subjective discomfort ratings, it was seen that the subjective discomfort rating was higher at performing the supination than the pronation. For the correlation between height adjustment and the subjective discomfort ratings, as the height of working table was lower, the subject discomfort rating was lower. Therefore there was no difference in the maximum muscular power according to the height changes of working table, but it was found that as the working table was higher, the user felt more comfortable.
The purpose of this study is to identify the level of masseter muscle tension according to the levels of restricted movement and pain in the temporomandibular joint(TMJ), thereby verifying the fact that excessive masseter muscle tension can be a cause for restricted movement and pain in the TMJ. The subjects of this study were 81 men and women in their 20s and 30s, who feel uncomfortable with their masticatory function on the preferred chewing side. The subjects were measured in terms of the range of motion (ROM) and deviation of the TMJ and the degree of pain in the affected region. The ROM and deviation of the TMJ were measured using the Global Posture System(GPS) after instructing each subject to open his/her mouth to the fullest and taking photos of the subject with a digital camera. The tension of the masseter muscle was measured with a Pressure Threshold Meter(PTM). After the measurements, in order to compare the ROM of the TMJ, the subjects were divided into two groups based on the ROM of above 35mm and below 35mm. For the deviation and pain, based on the average of total subjects, the subjects were divided into two groups of above and below average. Thereafter, the levels of masseter muscle tension were compared between each pair of groups. According to the results, when each variable was compared between the respective two groups, in terms of the deviation, the pressure pain threshold(PPT) of the masseter muscle revealed a statistically significant difference(p<.05). However, the ROM and pain showed no statistically significant difference. Consequently, masseter muscle tension may cause restricted movement in the TMJ. In particular, the deviation and tension in the masseter muscle is considered to be a factor that causes deviation in the TMJ.