Background: Ipsilateral pelvic elevation has been reported as a common compensatory movement during side-lying hip abduction. It has been reported that pelvic elevation inhibits sufficient contraction of gluteus medius. However, few studies have identified the effects of controlled pelvic elevation on the trunk and hip muscles.
Objective: To examine the effects of controlled pelvic elevation using visual biofeedback on the muscle activity of the trunk and hip muscles.
Design: Crossover study.
Methods: Twelve healthy males performed side-lying hip abduction exercises with and without visual biofeedback for pelvic elevation. Electromyography (EMG) activities of the gluteus medius, quadratus lumborum, and multifidus were analyzed using a wireless EMG system while the ipsilateral pelvic elevation angle was measured using a motion sensor during side-lying hip abduction exercises.
Results: EMG activities of the gluteus medius (p = .002), quadratus lumborum (p = .022), and multifidus (p = .020) were significantly increased and ipsilateral pelvic elevation was significantly decreased (p = .001) during side-lying hip abduction with visual biofeedback compared to without visual biofeedback.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the application of biofeedback for pelvic motion could improve the trunk and hip muscle activation pattern and decrease compensatory pelvic motion during side-lying hip abduction exercise.
Background: Stroke patients have leg muscle weakness and impaired balance resulting in compensatory changes. To restore balance in these patients, functional training using postural strategy is needed.
Objective: To examine the effects of ankle and hip strategy training on the center of pressure (COP) movement and limits of stability (LOS) in standing posture in stroke patients. Design: The study was an assessor-blinded and randomized-controlled clinical trial.
Methods: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to an ankle strategy training group and a ankle/ hip strategy training group. Patients in the ankle strategy training group underwent ankle strategy exercise for 30 min, and those in the ankle/ hip strategy training group underwent 15 min of ankle strategy exercise and 15 min of hip strategy exercise. Both groups underwent training thrice a week for four weeks. Forward, backward, paretic side, and non-paretic side COP movements and LOS were measured using BioRescue.
Results: After the intervention, except for the backward area in the ankle strategy training group, the COP movement area and the LOS were significantly improved in both the groups. In addition, these improvements were significantly higher in ankle/ hip strategy training group than that in the ankle strategy training group.
Conclusions: Ankle strategy training in addition to hip strategy training improves COP movement (forward-backward, paretic side area, and nonparetic side area) and LOS in stroke patients.
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes not only pain during walking but also walking disorders. Therefore, intervention for older patients with OA is important.
Objective: To study investigated the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on pain and walking ability in elderly persons with knee OA. Design: One group, pre-post design
Methods: This study enrolled 12 community-dwelling elderly people with knee OA. KT was applied on the surrounding structures, including the patellar and bilateral lateral ligaments. Assessment was made using the visual analog scale and GAITRite system to measure pain and walking ability during KT and non- KT conditions.
Results: In this study, compared to the non-KT condition, the KT condition showed a significant improvement in walking ability and pain reduction during walking (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length) (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knee KT has a positive effect on pain reduction and walking ability of the elderly with OA.
Background: Lumbar lordosis is a result of muscle shortening and may cause low back pain. Objective: To examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching on lumbar lordosis and low back pain in university students. Stretching is an intervention that can be applied to shortened muscles; however, very few studies have compared the effects of static and dynamic stretching on lumbar lordosis and low back pain.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial (single-blind)
Methods: The 12 selected subjects were randomly assigned static stretching and dynamic stretching groups each containing six students. The subjects in each group performed their respective stretching programs for 17 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Lumbar lordotic angle, low back pain, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were measured before and after the intervention.
Results: Intragroup comparisons showed significant reductions in lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain in the static stretching group while the dynamic stretching group showed significant decreases in lumbar lordotic angle, low back pain, and ODI. The intergroup comparisons showed significantly greater differences between pre- and post-intervention in lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain in the dynamic stretching group compared to those in the static stretching group while ODI did not show any intergroup difference.
Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that, while both static and dynamic stretching helped to reduce the lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain, dynamic stretching was more effective in alleviating lumbar lordotic angle and low back pain compared to static stretching.
Background : There is lack of studies on the effects of the bag-carrying style on the shoulder muscles and body alignment in adults with rounded shoulder posture (RSP).
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various bag-carrying styles on muscle tone, muscle stiffness and spinal alignment in 20 adults with RSP as they were walking on a treadmill.
Design : Crossover Study Design.
Methods: A subject performed treadmill walking for 15 minutes at a speed of 4 ㎞/ｈ while carrying three different types of bags: a backpack, a cross bag, and a shoulder bag.
Results : The results showed that the main effect of timing was observed in the muscle tone for all the variables and in muscle stiffness only for the upper and lower trapezius muscles. As for the main effect of timing, the muscle tone of the upper trapezius and the pectoralis major significantly increased in all conditions, while the muscle tone of the lower trapezius significantly decreased in all conditions. The muscle stiffness of the upper trapezius significantly increased in all conditions, while the muscle stiffness of the lower trapezius significantly decreased in all conditions. As for the spinal alignment, the dimple distance data values significantly decreased for the cross-bag style.
Conclusions : This study demonstrated that walking with a heavy bag, regardless of the bag-carrying style, increased muscle stiffness around the shoulders in adults with rounded shoulder posture, and walking with a crossbag also induced changes in spinal alignment.
Background: Stroke patients require arm movement exercising for various stimulations in standing position for various stimulations rather than in a sitting position because they require integrated skillful movements, such as stretching, holding, and controlling.
Objective: This study was conducted to provide foundational clinical data about lower limb global synkinesis in stroke patients using arm movements in a standing position.
Design: Randomized controlled trial.
Methods: The subjects were divided into a control group (n = 10) and an experimental group (n = 10), and a pre-test was conducted to evaluate leg global synkinesis (GS) and balance. Intervention method is stretching an arm to hold a ball, repeating supination and pronation of the hand only while maintaining the arm extended as much as possible, repeating shoulder abduction and adduction while holding the pegboard. This was followed by a three-week intervention during which re-measurement was conducted in the same way as was done for the pre-test. Results: The control group showed a significant difference in GS and balance during plantar flexion (p<.05), and the experimental group showed a significant difference in GS and balance during all movements (p<.05, p<.01, respectively). There was a significant difference in GS and balance between the two groups during dorsiflexion (p<.05, p<.01, respectively). Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that human arm movements in a standing position can reduce GS in the affected limb, and balance can be improved by stimulating the surrounding tissues of the affected limb and changing them positively.
Background: Although there are interventions available for the improvement of arm functions of patients with stroke, measuring changes in global synkinesis (GS) according to changes in the muscle activity of paretic and nonparetic side muscles is an important factor and studies to investigate such potential factors are evaluated necessary.
Objective: To examine the correlation between the affected arm muscle activity and GS changes in patients with stroke.
Design: Randomized controlled trial
Methods: In order to measure muscle activities of 30 stroke patients, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, biceps brachii and triceps brachii of the affected arms were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) and for analyzing GS, biceps brachii and triceps brachi of the affected arms were measured using the same instrument.
Results: When the correlations between the muscle activity and GS of the affected arm were analyzed, the results showed significant correlations between the posterior deltoid and the triceps brachii(p < .01) and between the triceps brachii and GS(p < .05).
Conclusion: : The results of this study suggest that the efficient movements of the affected arms of stroke patients, it is possible to increase extensor activity by improving smooth antagonism of the arm.
Background: The importance of postural stabilization and cervical mobilization in subjects with pain from the anterior head posture is drawing more attention. However, studies on head and neck stabilizing intervention after mobilization are lacking.
Objective: To examine the effects of Kinesiotaping and posture setting exercise on forward head posture (FHP).
Design: Crossover Study Design
Methods: The subjects were 17 male and female college students in their 20s with FHP. They were randomized into the Kinesiology taping group (KTG) with 9 subjects and posture stabilizing exercise group (PSEG) with 8 subjects. The intervention was conducted for 4 weeks, and changes in pain, craniovertebral angle (CVA), and proprioception were observed before and after intervention.
Results: Pain was significantly reduced in the KTG and PSEG both before and after intervention. CVA and proprioception were significantly increased only in the PSEG. The differences in CVA and proprioception between the two groups were significant.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the application of posture setting exercise could decrease pain, proprioceptive error and increase CVA on FHP