The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of group exer˗ cise program on depression in the elders with dementia. Subjects of this research were selected from the patients of Hyoja hospital(Yong˗ in, Korea). They were elders with dementia having minor to moderate degrees of cognitive function. Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, each with 12 people; exercise group and the control group. The control group only performed general physio˗ therapy, while the exercise group performed exercise program and general physiotherapy for 8 weeks. Depression of the exercise group and the control group were measured at baseline before the study, at 4 weeks, and at 8 weeks after the study. Depression was measured by Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea Version(GDSSF-K). Firstly, when comparing the levels of depression within the same group, depression was significantly lower in the exercise group, after the group exercise program. However, depression of the control group did not show significant changes before or after the study. Secondly, when comparing the levels of depression of the control group and the exercise group, differences between the levels meas˗ ured before the study and 8 weeks after the study, was a statistically significant decrease of depression. Thirdly, effects of group exercise program according to the applied period were analyzed showing 8 weeks of group exercise to be more beneficial than 4 weeks. People who performed continuous group exercise program showed decrease in depression compared to the absence of group exercise program. This can infer beneficial effects of group exercise program. Group exercise program had desirable influence on decreasing the level of depression.
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Needle Electrode Electrical Stimulation(NEES) on ischemia-induced cere˗ brovascular accidents. After obstruction and reperfusion of arteries in white mice, the amounts of necrosis and inflammation related sub˗ stances Bax, IL-6, Caspase-3, and COX-2 were measured in neurons of the fore-brain. The following results were obtained. This study used 21 male specific pathogen free(SPF) SD rats, 8 weeks of age and approximately 300g in weight. Each exposed artery was completely occluded with non-absorbent suture thread and kept in that state for 5 minutes. The sutures were then removed to allow reperfusion of blood. Test group is control group(common carotid artery occlusion models), a GI(underwent common carotid artery occlusion), and NEES(underwent NEES after artery occlusion). The GI and NEES groups were given 12, 24, or 48 hours of reperfusion before NEES. NEES device(PG6, ITO, Japan, 9V, current, 2Hz) was used to stimulate the bilateral acupoint ST36 of the SD rats for 30 minutes while they were sedated with 3% isoflurane. An immuno-his˗ tochemistry test was done on the forebrains of the GI induced rats. Both Bax and Caspase-3 immuno-reactive cells, related to apoptosis, were greater in the GI than the NEES group. Cox-2 and IL-6 immuno-reactive cells, related to inflammation, were greater in the GI and NEES groups than the control group. We can expect that applying NEES after ischemic CVA is effective for preventing brain cells from being destroyed. And we can conclude NEES should be applyed on early stage of ischemic CVA.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of heat appli˗ cation on the immune activities of the human body. To exam, further˗ more, the immune effect from the healthy volunteer(male:15, female:15) by monitoring changes of immune substances such as various leukocytes[total white blood cell(WBC), eosinophil, neutrophil, basophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte], a comparative study with warm water immersion(40.8±0.3℃) and infrared(250W) was carried out. The plasma analysis showed that the count of white blood cell, eosinophil, and neutrophil were elevated in warm water immersion- or infrared˗ stimulated group compared with control group. However, the count of basophil was decreased in both warm water immersion- and infrared-stimulated group than control group. Therefore, these results suggest that the thermostimulation improved immune activity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived health status, activities of daily living and depression of the elderly in nursing facil˗ ities and to identify correlations among them. The collected data is to improve healthy life for the aged people in communities. This study was performed by using of questionnaire which was consisted of perceived health status, activity of daily living(ADL) and depression. The survey was conducted by 180 aged people at nursing homes. The results of perceived health status show that 64.9% of elderly feel very bad or bad, 61.6% of elderly have a degree of independent level of activity of daily living(ADL) and 48.6% of elderly have a degree of depression. There were statically revealed meaningful correlation between ability of activity of daily living(ADL) and perceived health status, ability of activity of daily living(ADL) and depression. This study about connection among perceived health status, activity of daily living(ADL) and depression is necessary for number of the affil˗ iation function of elderly at nursing homes and development of inter˗ vention programs concerned about depression are necessary.
This study has been conducted on the subjects of eight undergradu˗ ate students with abdominal obesity and eight undergraduate stu˗ dents with normal weight to find out correlation between substantial fatigue and Ratings of perceived exertion through analysis of their blood components when they took exercises to strengthen their abdominal muscular power. Comparatively analyzing HDL-C, LDL-C and lactic acid before and after they took sit-up at level of RPE 19-20, no statistically significant differences in HDL, LDL, lactic acid meas˗ ures were observed between groups, but a significant difference in RPE was noted between groups(p<0.05) Our findings suggest that control group showed no significant differ˗ ence in increase of fatigue material whereas the obese group showed a lower frequency of sit-up, though both groups took the same abdominal exercise. Additionally, the lower frequency of sit-up in obese group results from relatively higher Ratings of perceived exer˗ tion rather than increase of substantial fatigue material. This study invites future research that examines the effect of a comprehensive obesity exercise program combined with dietetic
2 week study was conducted to investigate the effects of Interferential Current(IC) and Kaltenborn-Evjenth Orthopedic Manual Therapy(KEOMT) on functional constipation. Interventions were applied to spinal segments between T9-L2 which provides innerva˗ tions to the gastrointestinal tract. Subjects(n=24) were randomly allo˗ cated to two treatment groups: the IC group or the KEOMT group. Results for the IC therapy demonstrated significant decrease with the colonic transit time(CTT) as well as scores on the constipation assessment scale(CAS). The frequency of defecations per week had increased significantly(p<0.05). The KEOMT displayed decreased CTT in the left colon region. The scores on the CAS were reduced and frequency of defecations per week had increased significantly (p<0.05). This study not only showed that both modes of therapy improved symptoms of constipation, but also optimized gastrointesti˗ nal content movement, eventuating in a more normalized CTT. In conclusion, both the IC therapy and the Kaltenborn-Evjenth Orthopedic Manual Therapy have shown to be effective interventions for improving functional constipation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of trig˗ ger points(TrPs) on athletes with various sporting background. To achieve the purpose, a study was carried out through a survey from 180 athletes involved in 6 selected sports at Yong-In University. Selected sports included Judo, Taekwondo, Kendo, Ssi-reum(Korean traditional wrestling), Boxing, and Golf. An interview type survey and physical examination were conducted with each thirty athletes from each of the selected sports groups. Technical statistic(SPSS 15.0) was used to analyze the distribution of TrPs on these athletes. The most common TrPs observed in muscles of Trapezius, Quadratus Lumborum, Quadriceps in Judo. In Taekwondo, it was on the trapez˗ ius and triceps surae. Kendo athletes had TrPs at sites of trapezius, brachioradialis and triceps surae. Ssirem athletes were found to have TrPs on trapezius, deltoid and quadrates lumborum. In boxers, TrPs appearing at trapezius and brachioradialis were observed. Finally, Golf players were seen to have TrPs at trapezius, quadrates lumbo˗ rum and brachioradialis. Hence, the analysis shows that there are significant differences of the distribution of TrPs according to the different sport items of the athlete.
Supposing that somatotype evaluation results would have significant differences between the public group with less amounts of exercises and the special group with intensive exercises for three to four times a day, this study aimed at comparing the mutual consistency between the results determined by somatotype evaluation tools such as visually calculated index(VCI), Rohrer's Index(RI) and Body Mass Index(BMI). The public, taekwondo players and judo players groups were com˗ posed of fifty persons, taekwondo players and judo players passed through VCI determination, respectively. Their height and weight were examined and analyzed with somatotype evaluation tools. Comparison of somatotype dispersion of RI and VCI showed that most women were determined by VCI as lean type but were deter˗ mined by RI as normal type. And that women were determined by VCI as fat type but were determined by RI as normal type. Therefore both men and women showed significant differences in VCI and RI. Comparison of somatotype dispersion of VCI and BMI showed that both men and women were overestimated or underestimated by VCI rather than by BMI. Comparison of somatotype dispersion of RI and BMI showed that men were less determined by BMI as lean type compared with women; both men and women less determined by BMI rather than by RI as normal type; and both men and women, in particular, were more determined by BMI as fat type but men were more determined by BMI rather than by RI as fat type. Total somatotype consistency by tools showed that VCI has the greatest possibility of determining the public group, compared with other groups as lean type and that the consistency of the three tools were relatively higher for the taekwondo players and judo players groups, compared with the public.
Since physical therapy was first introduced in Korea, it has been 50 years past and Korean physical therapy has made rapid progress. However, history or educational system of Korean physical therapy is still not known worldwide. Now, for Korean physical therapy to go beyond Asia and leap toward the world, endless studies, efforts and publicity are required. Korean physical therapy first began by missionaries dispatched from other countries like America and Canada with Korean War, which occurred in 1950. After the War, Korean Physical Therapy is devel˗ oped very fast. Korean Physical Therapy Association was founded in October 1, 1965 and many physical therapist were discharged. Korea became a full member of World Confederation of Physical Therapy(WCPT) in 1974, and held the 2nd Asia Pacific Confederation of Physical Therapy assembly in 1984 and WCPT assembly in 2005. Today, in 2010, licensed physical therapists are about 35,000 and there are physical therapy departments in 74 universities, and 17 uni˗ versities have master's or doctor's degree courses. And there are many academic journals(more than 10) related to physical therapy that are published. Many Korean physical therapists are working at various countries like America or Australia, and are acknowledged with excellent treatment technology and academic studies. This thesis aims to shed new light to the history and educational system reorganization of Korean phys˗ ical therapy and introduce it to the world, and establish the historical foundation to develop Korean physical therapy into the international level.