Background: Although the scapular posterior tilt movement could facilitate the lower trapezius (LT) muscle activity, no study identified the effects of the scapular posterior tilt movement on the selective activation of the LT muscle during prone shoulder extension.
Objectives: To examine the influences of additional scapular posterior tilt on electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT) and the LT muscles during prone shoulder extension.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Methods: There were 15 asymptomatic male participants in this study who performed prone shoulder extension with and without scapular posterior tilt movements. For the scapular posterior tilt movements, participants performed visual biofeedback training for scapular movement using motion sensor. During the exercises, the EMG activity of the UT and LT was recorded using surface EMG system.
Results: The EMG activity of the LT significantly increased during prone shoulder extension with scapular posterior tilt compared to that of general prone shoulder extension, whereas that of the UT was not significantly different between the two exercises. Moreover, scapular posterior tilt application significantly decreased UT/LT muscle activity ratio.
Conclusion: Scapular posterior tilt movement may be emphasized during exercise when facilitating LT muscle activation.
Background: Back pain is associated with a high risk of recurrence. Various physical therapy techniques for back pain have been studied, including reprogramming the central nervous system by integrating sensation and motion with sensory exercise training.
Objectives: To aimed verify the effectiveness of sensorimotor training in improving postural stability and pain levels.
Design: A randomized controlled trial. Methods: The study population was randomized into a sensory exercise training group and trunk stabilization training group and treated three times a week for 4 weeks. Each group took part in sensorimotor training for 15 minutes or lumbar stabilization exercise for 15 minutes.
Results: After the intervention both groups showed Improvements in the variables. There was a significant difference in the dynamic postural stability, limit of stability, and modified visual analog scale scores in the sensorimotor training group compared to the lumbar stabilization exercise group (P<.05).
Conclusion: Sensorimotor training appears to be an effective physical therapy exercise program that can be applied in patients with low back pain to improve muscle control ability.
Background: Stroke patients have weak trunk muscle strength due to brain injury, so a single type of exercise is advised for restoring functionality. However, even after intervention, the problem still lies and it is suggested that another intervention method should be applied with exercise in order to deal with such problem.
Objectives: To Investigate the effect of bridge exercise combined with functional electrical stimulation (FES) on trunk muscle activity and balance in stroke patients.
Design: Randomized controlled trial.
Methods: From July to August 2020, twenty stroke patients was sampled, ten patients who mediated bridge exercises combined with functional electrical stimulation were assigned to experiment group I, and ten patients who mediated general bridge exercises were assigned to experiment groupⅡ. For the pre-test, using surface EMG were measured paralyzed rectus abdominis, erector spinae, transverse abdominis/internal oblique muscle activity, and using trunk impairment scale were measured balance. In order to find out immediate effect after intervention, post-test was measured immediately same way pre-test.
Results: Change in balance didn’t show significant difference within and between groups, but muscle activity of trunk was significant difference rectus abdominis and erector spinae within groups I (P<.01), also between groups was significant difference (P<.05).
Conclusion: Bridge exercise combined with FES could improve trunk function more effectively than general bridge exercise due to physiological effect of functional electrical stimulation.
Background: More women than men experience genu recurvatum, which can lead to knee pain and arthritis if left unattended. Pilates combined with taping is a suitable rehabilitation method for women with genu recurvatum.
Objectives: To aimed the effect of taping and Pilates stabilization exercise on physical alignment and improvement of genu recurvatum in women with genu recurvatum.
Design: A Randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Twenty-one women were divided into three groups: taping group (back of knee taping and quadriceps femoris taping, n=7), Pilates exercise group (hip, knee and abdominal muscles exercise, n=7), and combined group (taping with pilates exercise, n=7). The measured variables were sagittal plane alignment and back and abdominal muscle, knee flexor and extensor strength.
Results: After the intervention, all sagittal plane alignments were significantly improved in both the Pilates and combined groups. Sagittal plane alignment was significantly improved in the combined group compared with the taping group. Back and abdominal muscle strength were significantly improved in the Pilates and combined groups compared with the taping group. Knee flexor and extensor were significantly improved in the combined group compared with the Pilates group and in the Pilates group compared with the taping group.
Conclusion: Pilates exercise with taping or Pilates exercise alone was effective intervention methods to improve physical alignment and strength in women with genu recurvatum.
Background: The therapeutic exercise method using kinesiology taping (KT) has been reported to be effective in activating the suprahyoid muscle in healthy adults. However, its applicability and effectiveness are not known to the physically vulnerable elderly.
Objectives: To investigate the effects of kinesiology taping on the activity of suprahyoid muscles in community-dwelling elderly people. Design: Repeated measure design.
Methods: We enrolled 23 healthy elderly adults (age range 60–75 years) with no history of neurologic disease. Participants performed five consecutive spontaneous swallowing actions at 5-second intervals under three conditions (KT with 80% stretch, placebo-KT, and non-KT. Activation of the suprahyoid muscles during swallowing in the three conditions was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). In addition, a 0–10 numerical rating self-report scale was used to evaluate the required effort and the resistance felt during swallowing.
Results: KT with 80% stretch were significantly higher in sEMG mean value, peak value, required effort, and resistance felt during swallowing compared to other two conditions (P<.05, all). KT with 80% stretch required the most effort during swallowing and, consequently, has a positive effect on increasing suprahyoid muscle activation.
Conclusion: Our results could be taken into consideration in therapeutic exercise method for suprahyoid muscle in dysphagia rehabilitation.
Background: This study evaluated the effectiveness of upper thoracic manipulation (UTM) and proprioceptive training versus proprioceptive training alone on forward head posture (FHP) and cervicocephalic joint position sense (CJPS) in asymptomatic university students during a short interval of time.
Objectives: To evaluate whether the suggested combination would provide greater benefit, and be superior to proprioceptive training alone in improving proprioceptive acuity and head posture. Design: A single-blind randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Thirty-three university student volunteers with asymptomatic FHP were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to a manipulation group (n=16) receiving UTM combined with proprioceptive training or a proprioception group (n=17) receiving proprioceptive training only. The intervention period lasted 5 weeks in total, and consisted of one 15 to 20-minute session per week. FHP and CJPS were assessed before and after the intervention.
Results: A significant pre- to post-intervention decrease in FHP and joint position error was identified in both groups (P<.05). Subjects in the manipulation group demonstrated greater improvements in CJPS and head posture compared to the proprioception group (P<.05). Conclusion: These findings support employing either intervention for treating asymptomatic students with FHP. However, the addition of UTM to proprioceptive training was more effective than proprioceptive training alone in reducing joint position errors and improving head posture.
Background: Stroke is a neurological disorder characterized by an impaired static balance. A change in poor posture after stroke may worsen static balance. The balance control through an upright posture may include kinesiology taping of the middle back.
Objectives: To investigated the effect of kinesiology taping of middle back on static balance in patients with stroke.
Design: A randomized controlled trial.
Methods: A total of 10 patients with stroke were divided into two groups. The experimental and control groups received kinesiology taping and placebo taping of the middle back, respectively. After 24 h, static balance (i.e., sway area and path length) was measured in closed eyes condition.
Results: The experimental group (kinesiology taping group) showed a significant decrease in sway area and path length after the intervention. In addition, kinesiology taping group showed a significant decrease in sway area and path length compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Kinesiology taping of the middle back can improve static balance in stroke patients.
Background: Patients with stroke have limited ankle range of motion (ROM) due to soft tissue abnormalities around the ankle and thus experience functional impairment. Increased muscle tension and reduced ankle ROM impair gait and hinder the activities of daily living. Joint mobilization and stretching are effective interventions that improve gait performance by enhancing the ankle ROM.
Objectives: To investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization and calf muscle stretching on gait speed and gait performance in patients with stroke.
Design: This was a randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Twenty patients with stroke patients were randomized into two groups. The joint mobilization group (JMG) underwent anteroposterior mobilization of the talocrural joint and the joint mobilization stretching group (JMSG) underwent calf muscle stretching in addition to joint mobilization. Gait speed and gait parameters were measured using the 10-meter walk test and the GAITRite.
Results: Both the JMG and JMSG groups showed significant improvements in gait speed, affected-side step length, and cadence after the intervention (P<.05).
Conclusion: Joint mobilization and stretching were effective interventions for improving gait performance by enhancing ankle function in patients with stroke.
Background: Patients with dysphagia after stroke are treated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), but its effect on masseter muscle thickness and bite force in the oral phase is not well known.
Objectives: To investigated the effect of NMES on masseter muscle thickness and occlusal force in patients with dysphagia after stroke.
Design: Two group, pre-post design.
Methods: In this study, 25 patients with dysphagia after stroke were recruited and allocated to either the experimental or the control groups. Patients in the experimental group were treated with NMES to the masseter muscle at the motor level for 30 minutes and were additionally treated with traditional swallowing rehabilitation for 30 minutes. In contrast, patients in the control group were only treated with traditional swallowing rehabilitation for 30 minutes. Masseter muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonography before and after intervention, and bite force was measured using an bite force meter.
Results: The experimental group showed significant improvement in masseter muscle thickness and bite force compared to the control group.
Conclusion: NMES combined with traditional dysphagia rehabilitation is effective in improving masseter muscle thickness and bite force in patients with dysphagia after stroke.
Background: Masticating is an activity that is free from temporal or spatial constraints, with an advantage that it can be combined easily with other treatment methods. While several studies have reported a positive effect of the intervention of chewing using the jaw on postural stability, only a few studies were conducted on stroke patients.
Objectives: To investigated the effects of masticating chewing gum on the static and dynamic balancing of stroke patients.
Design: Randomized cross-over study design.
Methods: Nineteen stroke patients were randomly assigned to the chewing group or control group. BT4 was used to measure the static and dynamic balancing abilities. Pre-test measurements were taken before mastication of chewing gum, and post-test measurements were taken after 2 days. The stroke patients in the chewing group were guided to sit on a chair and chew gum for 3 min, and their balancing abilities were simultaneously measured. The balancing abilities of the control group patients were measured while they sat at rest without masticating chewing gum.
Results: The chewing group showed significant increases in the measures of static balance (i.e., C90 area, trace length, X mean, and Y mean). In the between-group comparison, the measures of static balance were significantly higher in the chewing group than in the control group.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that masticating chewing gum enhanced the static balancing ability of stroke patients. Thus, gum chewing should be considered a viable clinical intervention to control posture in stroke patients.