The purpose of this study is to determine the correlations between problematic behaviors and activities of daily living(ADL) targeting 106 demented elderly people hospitalized in a geriatric hospital. To examine the cognitive function of the subjects, the study used Korean Mini Mental State Examination(K-MMSE). For problematic behaviors and ADL, the study collected data based on Patient Assessment Forms in the geriatric hospital. Among problematic behaviors, apathy/indifference had the highest correlation with the items of ADL. Irritability/lability, agitation/aggression, depression/ dysphoria, night-time behavior and wandering also showed to be correlated to items of ADL(p<.05). This study demonstrated that cognitive function, problematic behaviors and ADL of the demented elderly hospitalized in the geriatric hospital are correlated to each other.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback breathing exercise on respiratory muscle activity. Thirty stroke patients were randomly and equally assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received rehabilitation exercise treatment for 30 minutes and feedback respiratory exercise for 30 minutes and the control group received rehabilitation exercise treatment for 30 minutes and conducted motomed exercise for 30 minutes. All of them conducted exercises five times per week for four weeks. Respiratory muscles including the upper trapezius(UT), longissimus dorsi(LD), rectus abdominis(RA), external abdominal oblique(EAO) and, internal abdominal oblique(IAO) were measured using MP 150WSW prior to and after the experiment. Regarding pulmonary functions prior to and after the experiment, the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections but the control group did not show significant differences in any sections. As for in-between group differences after the experiment, there were significant differences in the UT, LD, RA, and IAO but no significant differences in the EAO. In conclusion, respiratory muscle activity was more effective for the experimental group than the control group. It is considered that feedback respiratory exercise may induce improvement in respiratory muscles in stroke patients through feedback breathing exercise.
The purpose of this study to identified the effect of muscle strengthening of ankle joints on postural sway. The subjects of this study were 29 healthy adults aged between 20 and 30 years(male 18, female 11). All subjects received ankle muscle strengthening exercise for 3 times, 3 sessions, 30 minutes per week over 4weeks period. The measured item of muscle strength, postural sway. Data collected from all subjects the result were as follows. The ankle strength showed significant increase(p<.05). One leg stand test with eye close increase in static balance(p<.05), left-right sway distance and anterior-posterior sway distance with eye open and close in static balance(p<.05). The result findings show that strength of the ankle joint muscles is a factor which affects postural sway and the ankle joints are important in static balance.
The fact that flip-flops, one of many different types of unstable shoes, are light and relatively easy to put on, accounts for their popularity among people. But because flip-flops rely heavily on the support of a single thong between your first and second toes, they impose a huge amount of pressure onto lower leg. Thus in the following experiment we tried to examine the different effects of flip-flops and running shoes in terms of their effect on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius during walking. In order to measure an electromyogram we used Free EMG system. 10 men and 10 women in running shoes ran on treadmills for 15 minutes at 4.8km/h, 2 days later the same experiment was carried out, but this time, in flip-flops. p value turned out to be greater than .05 and thus there was no considerable difference between the effects of flip-flops and running shoes on muscle activity and fatigue during walking. Therefore we conclude that despite the fact that flip-flops are considered unstable, their effects on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius are negligible.
This study aims to compared effect of balance between general walking exercise and power walking exercise. Twenty subjects were classified into two groups, general walking exercise(n=10) and power walking exercise(n=10). As a result, two group showed difference within the group and there is significant difference between two groups. 1) In compared static balance of sway area at pre-post test to exercise group, general walking exercise group did not change significantly. however, power walking exercise group did change significantly. and At sway distance, two group showed significant changes. 2) In compared Static balance between the groups sway area and sway path at pre-post test, two group showed significant changes. 3) In compared dynamic balance of center distance at pre-post test to exercise group, general walking exercise group was no significant difference in all directions. power walking exercise group was significant difference in all directions. 4) In compared dynamic balance between the groups sway area and sway path at pre-post test, there was no significant difference in leftward, rightward, forward directions and was significant difference in backward, overall direction. Therefore, power walking exercise can be recommended promote balance.
The purpose of this study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of the manual intervention and self-corrective exercise models of general coordinative manipulation(GCM) on the balance restoration of spine & extremities joints with distortions and mal-alignment areas. The subjects were the members who visited GCM Musculoskeletal Prevent Exercise Center from March 1 2012 to December 31 2013 because of spine & extremities joints distortion and mal-alignments, poor posture, and body type correction. All subjects were diagnosed with the four types of the GBT diagnosis. And according to the standards of the mobility vs stability types of the upper & lower body, they were classified into Group 1(40 persons) and Group 2(24 persons). For every other day for three times a week, GCM intervention models were applied to all subjects for four weeks, adding up to 12 times in total. Then the balance restoration effects were re-evaluated with the same methods. The results are as follows. 1) Balance restoration effects of VASdp(Visual analysis scale pain & discomfort) and ER(Equilibrium reaction: ER) came out higher in GCM body type(GBT) Ⅱ·Ⅲ·Ⅳ of Group 1. 2) In case of balance restoration effects in Moire and postural evaluation areas, Group 1 was higher and cervical and scapular girdle were higher in Group 2. The balance restoration of the four GBT types was significant in all regions(p<.05), and the scapular girdle came out as high in the order of GBTⅡ·Ⅳ·Ⅰ. 3) In case of thoracic-lumbar scoliosis and head rotation·facial asymmetric· cervical scoliosis·ribcage forward, the balance restoration effects of the upper body postural evaluation areas came out the highest in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The balance restoration effects of the four GBT types were significant in all regions(p<.05), and came out the highest in lumbar scoliosis GBTⅢ·Ⅰ, ribcage forward and thoracic scoliosis GBTⅡ·Ⅳ. 4) The balance restoration effects of the lower body postural evaluation areas came out higher in Group 1 and Group 2 for pelvis girdle deviation·patella high·umbilicus tilt and hallux valgus·foot longitudinal arch: FLA·patella direction, respectively. The balance restoration effects of the four GBT types were significant in all regions(p<.05), and came out the highest in pelvis girdle deviation GBTⅢ·Ⅰand patella high-direction GBTⅣ·Ⅱ·Ⅰ. 5) The balance restoration effects between the same GBT came out significant (p<.05) in all evaluation areas and items. The conclusions of this study was the manual intervention and self-corrective exercise models of the GCM about the mal-alignment of the spine & extremities joints across the whole body indicated high balance restoration effects(p<.05) in spine & extremities joints in all evaluation areas.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of making an origami crane on the improvement of hand dexterity. Subjects composed of 20 normal adult males were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups of 10 people respectively. For the experimental group, a training of making an origami crane was conducted for 40 to 50 minutes a day during a 4-week training period. The control group was made to engage in everyday activities as usual. For pre and post assessment, Groove Pegboard test, Purdue Pegboard Test, and Jebsen Hand Function Test were used. The results on the effects of making an origami crane showed that there was a statistically significant difference in both the Grooved Pegboard test and Purdue Pegboard test(p＜.05). In the Jebsen hand function Test, a significant difference was found in handwriting and building pieces of chess(p＜.05), but there was no statistically significant difference in comparison with the right hand during the average performance of picking up small stuffs. The activity of making an origami crane for normal adults was confirmed to be helpful to improve the hand dexterity. Accordingly, making an origami crane is suggested to be an effective way to improve the hand dexterity.
The purpose of this study is to identify the bridge exercise posture for the efficient exercise by comparing the muscle activity of the lower limbs according to the changes in muscle length because of knee angle in bridge exercise. The subjects of this study were 9 randomly selected males in their 20s living in D city from those who satisfied inclusion criteria. The measured muscles were Vastus medialis oblique, Vastus lateralis, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris, Gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, Tensor faciae latae, and Adductor longus. Data were analyzed through paired comparison test. In the result, ST, BF, and TFL muscle activities were high when knee joint flexion angle was 90°Although in most cases higher muscle activity was shown at 90°than 60°there was no statistical significance. Interestingly, it was lower at 90°than 60°in VL. In ST, BF, and TFL, it was significantly higher at 90°han 60°(p<.05). Conclusively, knee angles in bridge exercise may affect the muscle activity, and in particular when the activity of two joint muscles such as semimenbranosus muscle, biceps femoris muscle, and tensor fasciae latae muscle increase as the angle gets higher. Therefore, it is considered that this study will provide helpful tips to develop muscular strength enforcement program for the patients with damages in the lower limbs through bridge exercise in clinical situations.
The purpose of this study was to implement a program of combined muscle stregth and proprioceptive exercises and to examine the impacts of these exercises on functional ankle instability(FAI). Experiments were conducted with 30 adult males and females in their 20s, and the exercise programs were implemented three days per week for four weeks. FAI was defined as a feeling of giving way after an ankle sprain and having a Cumberland ankle instability tool score of 24 points or less. The study subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group, a muscle-strengthening exercise group, or a combined muscle-strengthening and proprioceptive exercise group consisting of 10 subjects each. A Biodex isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess the subjects’ankle strength at selected speeds of 60°/sec and 120°/sec. The peak torque % body weight showed significant differences in plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion. There were also significant differences in proprioception. The results suggest that applying combined muscle-strength and proprioceptive exercises to subjects with FAI is a more effective intervention than applying only muscle-strengthening exercises.
The purpose of this study is to examine the changes on lumbar muscle strength in relation to 12-week pilates mat exercise of elderly women. The participants are chosen for 17 people who is an experimental group and 14 people who is an comparison group who except wastage and pilates mat exercise program was gradually intensify applied three times a week, during 12 weeks. The peak torque of flexion was increased(p<.01) and the difference of ratio of agonist to antagonist was decreased(p<.001). The total work of flexion and extension had significant increased(p<.001) at 120°/sec. As a result of all these, it was judged as positive effect for body composition, basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle strength after pilates mat exercise in 12 weeks. These positive effects showed that pilates mat exercise could got conclusions that mitigated the musculoskelctal disorders, slow down the progress of disorders, helped as a functions of physical.
The purpose of this study is to identify the effective lumbar area exercise program to prevent falls of the elderly by dividing 14 female elders over 65 living in Daegu into two groups such as resistance exercise group and resistance & stabilization exercise group, and applying a 60 minute exercise program three times a week for 12 weeks. The followings are the results. First, both of resistance exercise and resistance & stabilization exercise brought improvement of lumbar strength and there was no significant difference between two groups. Second, there was no significant difference in lower limb strength in resistance exercise group but resistance & stabilization exercise group showed significant increase in lower limb flexor strength. To make a summary of the above results, it can be said that 12 weeks’ resistance & stabilization exercise is effective to the lumbar strength and lower limb strength of the elderly. Accordingly, if combining resistance exercise and stabilization exercise appropriately, we can build a successful preventive program which even the elderly who cannot perform resistance exercise easily can follow.
The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Gastrocnemius and Low Back-muscle isotonic exercise on static•dynamic standing balance during the period of 4 weeks. This study was two groups pretest-posttest design. Nineteen subjects who were over 22 years old were randomly assigned to either the experimental group that received the Gastrocnemius muscle exercise(n=9) or the low back muscle exercise(n=10) : The former group performed isotonic exercise(plantar flexion), the latter group performed isotonic exercise(trunk extension) a total of 18 times for three times per week for four weeks. Two groups also performed static and dynamic balance before the exercise and 4weeks after the exercise. The data were analyzed by using the paired t-test and independent t-test. The results were as follows: As compared with change of dynamic balance performance capacity at two groups, a significant difference was shown in the test(p<.05), but not in static balance(p>.05). Also, a significant difference of balance between groups was not shown in the test. In this study indicated that gastrocnemius and low back muscle isotonic exercise will have positive impact on standing balance.
This study was to investigate the needs of the functional abnormality of the Temporomandibular joint. The purpose of this study was to find out basic concept for the Chiropractic-care necessity of the neuromuscular skeletal patients with functional abnormality of the temporomandibular joint. I evaluated the change of the range of motion, neck pain, headache by post xray, orthopedic test and patient's charts. The range of motion at temporomandibular joint was improved and the necessity of chiropractic care was recognized in the neuromuscular skeletal patients with having temporomandibular joint problems.
This study aims to reveal the impact of continuous antagonist strengthening( CAS) and Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(EHS) on the cervical mobility in the university students with abnormal transformation of forward head posture( FHP). Our experiment was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks in a total of 20 individuals : continuous antagonist strengthening(CAS) group(n=10) & Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(EHS) group(n=10). In a pre and post comparison, both CAS group and EHS group appeared significantly in mSBI and SBA(p<.05) and the two-group comparison showed a significant difference(p<.05) : CAS group showed better effects. Thus, it is considered that the combined use with continuous antagonist strengthening(CAS) had better effects for cervical mobility than Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(EHS) alone.