This study is intended to examine the tDCS and Morris Water maze training in Alzheimer’s disease(AD) rats on Tau protein expression. Experiment groups were divided into four groups and assigned 16 rats to each group. Group Ⅰ was a control group(AD induced by scopolamine); Group Ⅱ was a experimental control group(AD injured by scopolamine and treatment tacrine); Group Ⅲ was a group of tDCS application after AD injured by scopolamine; Group Ⅳ was a group of morris water maze training after AD injured by scopolamine. In cognition test, the outcome of group Ⅱ was significantly lower than the groups(p<.001). and group Ⅲ, Ⅳ were significantly low result at 14 days(p<.05). In histological finding, the experimental groups were destroy of micro vessels and finding of cell atropy and swelling. Group Ⅲ, Ⅳ were decreased in degeneration of liver and kidney cells. In immuno- histochemistric response of BDNF and tau protein in hippocampus, BDNF expression of Group Ⅱ was more increase than the other groups. and increase of BDNF expression was Ⅲ, Ⅳ were higher than group Ⅰ at 21 days. Tau protein expression of Group Ⅱ was more decrease than the other groups. and decrease of Tau protein expression was Ⅲ, Ⅳ were lower than group Ⅰ at 21 days. These result suggest that improved tDCS and morris water maze training after scopolamine induced is associated with dynamically altered expression of BDNF and Tau protein in hippocampus and that is related with cognitive function.
The purpose of this study was to investigate spirometric lung pattern, respiratory function and degree of fatigue by lung function tests and fatigue tests of 39 elderly people in a care facility aged 65 and over. The respiratory function tests were used to the Spirovit SP-1 and fatigue tests were used modified Piper fatigue scale(mPFS). Regarding the respiratory function, the FVC was 1.41±0.36ℓ, the FVC % predicted was 69.10±14.98%, the FEV1 was 1.02±0.31ℓ, the FEV1 % predicted was 63.27±16.05%, the FEV1/FVC was 72.77±13.40%, and the fatigue score was 5.83±1.09. As for the spirometric lung pattern, 19 patients had a restrictive pattern(48.7%), followed by 11 with a mixed pattern(28.2%), 5 with an obstructive pattern( 12.8%), and 4 with a normal pattern(10.3%). Regarding the respiratory function and fatigue by spirometric lung pattern, the FVC and the FVC % predicted of patients with a normal pattern or an obstructive pattern were greater than other groups at a statistically significant level. As for the FEV1, that of patients with a normal pattern was significantly higher than others, and for the FEV1 % predicted, that of patients with a normal pattern or a restrictive pattern was significantly higher(p<.001). Fatigue score by patients with a normal pattern was significantly less than patients of other patterns(p<.001). Therefore, pulmonary physical therapy is considered necessary to improve respiratory function and fatigue degradation of elderly in a facility.
The purpose of this study is to find out the activity of gluteus medius muscle by the changes of load given to the upper limbs in single support phase. This study was twenty healthy men from A College. The left gluteus medius muscle was measured using SEMG(surface Electromyogram). Only the left foot was supported, and for the right foot, the right upper limbs were abducted while hip joint and the knee joint were bent at a 90° angle. The study was made by giving weight using dumbbells, depending on the RM of the subject(0RM, 1RM, 3RM, 5RM, 7RM). Gluteus medius muscle showed a large activity for those given weight to the upper limbs(1RM, 3RM, 5RM, 7RM) than that without weight(0RM). There was a significant difference in the activity of gluteus medius muscle between each RM. Gluteus medius muscle is high active when weight is given to the upper limbs in single support phase.
This study aims to address the effect of interferential current therapy and thereby to provide basic resources to physical therapies for internal medicine by identifying symptoms for functional dyspepsia and serum gastrin level that shows gastric motility. Following results were obtained by performing interferential current therapy to 16 subjects composed of 8 for functional dyspepsia group and 8 for control group for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. In control group, serum gastrin level was significantly( p<.01), lowered after the therapy whereas there was no significant difference observed in all questions from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. In functional dyspepsia group, serum gastrin level was significantly(p<.01), lowered after the therapy and there was also significant(p<.01) reduction in every question from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. There was more significant decrease in serum gastrin level and reduction in questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the functional dyspepsia group compared to the control group(p<.01). This study confirms the interferential current therapy as an effective therapeutic method for internal diseases including functional dyspepsia since it not only improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia but also allows the gastric motility close to normal.
This study has investigated the effect of isometric contractile force and muscle activity applying sperficial heat according to the time from the biceps brachii muscle. In this study, 20 university students participants without musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. By applying a hot pack 5min, 10min, 20min and 30min respectively. After that measurement are skin temperature, contractile force and muscle activity. Skin temperature of the hot 5 min applied that rapidly changing. Increasing the time it takes to apply a variance has been reduced(p<.001). Isometric contractile force was not statistically significant but highest when applying the hot pack 5 minutes and lowest when applying the hot pack 30 minutes(p<.001). Muscle activity and median frequency was highest when applying the hot pack 5 minutes. To analyze the above results, it was found that isometric contractile force and muscle activity changed according to the applying time. These result lead us to the conclusion that this study will be more evidence for changes in muscle contraction to apply hot pack on clinic.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of chronic shoulder pain on the muscle tone in trunk muscles. The study's subjects were 40 men and women in their 30 to 50s, which were divided into two groups. A chronic shoulder pain group consisted of 20 subjects who had been diagnosed with chronic shoulder pain by doctors, and a painless group consisted of 20 subjects who had experienced no such pain. An analysis was performed using electromyography on the muscle tone in the rectus abdominalis, external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscles under the same conditions between the two groups. The analysis results were as follows. The chronic shoulder pain group exhibited an overall high level of trunk muscle tone than the painless group, along with a statistically significant difference in the rectus abdominalis(p<.05). Moreover, the chronic shoulder pain group showed differences in the trunk muscle tone depending on the affected side. The chronic left shoulder pain group yielded higher levels of muscle tone in the right-side trunk muscles. In particular, the group revealed statistically significant differences in the rectus abdominalis and internal oblique(p<.05). The chronic right shoulder pain group exhibited higher levels of muscle tone in the left-side trunk muscles with a statistically significant difference in the internal oblique(p<.05). The above results suggested that chronic shoulder pain influences increases in the muscle tone in the trunk muscles on the opposite side to the affected shoulder.
The purpose of this study is to analysis of muscle fatigue in the upper trapezius and splenius capitis muscles according to therapy table height variation. The subjects were consisted of 15 healthy adults(10 males, 5 females) who had no medical history of neurological and musculoskeletal problems. In experiment, wireless electrode EMG system was measured for each the upper trapezius and splenius capitis muscles during the treatment performed on table. the differences in the muscle fatigue was compared for 4 types of table height(-6cm, -3cm, 0, +3cm from elbow in 90° flexion position). Muscle fatigue according to therapy table height were significant difference except for left upper trapezius. And muscle fatigue of right upper trapezius and splenius capitis showed significant decrease in +3cm table height compared to -6cm table height(p<.05). Muscle fatigue of right upper trapezius and splenius capitis were the highest in -6cm table height, but those were the lowest in +3cm table height. This study propose to change therapy table height higher than +3cm from elbow in 90° flexion position, if you hope to reduce muscle fatigue.
Most patients with chronic low back pain experience functional disability of trunk muscle, and limitations in physical activity. While there are many types of exercise programs available, in recent years sling exercise has been emerging as the exercise program for spinal stabilization. It has been supported by a great amount of research with positive findings on its effectiveness. This research studies the effects of bridging exercise, conducted on a sling, on pain level and trunk muscle activation in supine, sidelying, and prone positions during a 4 weeks period. 10 healthy people(normal group, n=10) and 28 patients with low back pain participated in this study. 28 patients were divided into two groups; one group participated in exercise with the sling(experimental group, n=14) and the other group exercised without the sling(control group, n=14). They were asked to use the Numerical Rating Scale(NRS) to answer to the level of their pain they felt (no pain: 0 point, severe pain: 10 points). During sling bridging exercises, the muscle activity level in each muscle measured in each position was standardized as three seconds of EMG signals during five seconds MVIC. In conclusion, the experimental group with four weeks of sling bridging exercise experienced a statistically significant reduction in the pain level(p<.05) and increase in the muscle activities of erector spinae when in supine position, internal oblique when in sidelying position, and rectus abdominis in prone position(p<.05). Regular sling bridging exercise reduces the low back pain and enhances other trunk muscle activation, thereby positively affect spinal stabilization.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the grip strength by the girth of upper arm and forearm and their muscle activities by duration of grip strength. The subjects were consisted of 20 healthy adults(10 males & 10 females) who had no medical history of neurological and surgical problems with their arms. Girth of upper arm/ forearm and maximum grip strength for 4sec and 30sec were measured. Muscle activity was by wireless electrode EMG system. Co-relation of girth of upper arm/ forearm was significantly high. Upper arm's muscle activity performed for 4sec and 30sec was significantly high. In this study. It suggests that training of upper arm should be performed with the training of grip strength because both of upper arm and forearm affected grip strength.
Experts of medicine, philosophy and psychology found that human somatotypes were related to personality or physical characteristics and classified somatotypes into various forms. This study explored the changes and types of somatotyping methods from Before Christ to present day and identified the status of studies of somatotypes in the area of physical therapy. This study covered the methods applied in various majors with a focus on those provided in books and papers of Heath BH. and Carter JEL. Based on the results, there are officially twelve assessment methods. Currently, the method of Heath & Carter is most widely applied. Somatotypes are studied in many areas. It is actively explored in the area of pain physical therapy, thermotherapy and integumentary physical therapy. Also, the soft tissue physical therapy area seeks interdisciplinary studies. This study found that there were various assessment methods in diverse areas. It is likely that continuous studies will develop new assessment methods. It is hoped that in the area of physical therapy, somatotypes shall be applied more amply.