Background: Most of the previous researches on the abnormality of breathing pattern have focused on the silence of functional movements owing to such abnormality, however, have not been clearly identified the relationship between the abnormal breathing pattern on one hand and kinesiophobia and flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) on the other hand.
Objective: To compare patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and healthy person in the abnormality of breathing pattern, kinesiophobia, and FRP during flexion and extension of the trunk.
Design: Case-control study.
Methods: The research subjects consisted of a group of 15 healthy adults and another group of 15 patients with CLBP. Capnography was used to measure the endtidal CO2 (EtCO2) and respiratory quotient (RQ). The muscle activity of multifidus and erector spinae of the subjects was measured during flexion and extension of the trunk to identify their FRP. The Nijmegen Questionnaire (NQ) and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) were utilized to measure their breathing patterns and kinesiophobia, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was conducted in order to analyze the normal distribution of the measured data. Their general characteristics were identified by the descriptive statistics and the independent t-test was performed to identify the differences between the two groups in terms of abnormality of breathing pattern, kinesiophobia, and FRP. The level of significance was set at α=.05.
Results: The patients with CLBP had significantly less EtCO2 and shorter breathing hold time (BHT) than normal healthy person (p<.05). The patient with CLBP also had significantly greater kinesiophobia than healthy person (p<.05), and had less FRP than the healthy person (p<.01).
Conclusions: These results suggest that the CLBP had greater abnormality of breathing pattern and kinesiophobia with less FRP than healthy person.
Background: Functional ankle instability (FAI) indicating a decrease in muscle strength, proprioception, neuromuscular control, balance and postural control function.
Objective: To investigate the effect of jumping exercise on the supporting surface on the ankle muscle thickness, proprioceptive sensation, and balance in adults with FAI.
Design: Randomized Controlled Trial.
Methods: Twenty young people with FAI were randomly assigned to the unstable supporting surface jump group (N=10) and the stable supporting surface jump group (N=10). The intervention was conducted three times a week for eight weeks, and for 30 minutes per session. Trampoline was used as an unstable support surface and the stable support surface was carried out on a regular floor. The thickness of the tibialis anterior muscle and medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured by ultrasonography, and the proprioception of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion was measured using an electrogoniometer. The dynamic balance was also measured with a balance meter.
Results: The the muscle thickness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher in the stable supporting surface jump group than in the unstable supporting surface jump group (p<.05). Furthermore, the plantar flexion proprioception and dynamic balance were significantly improved in the unstable supporting surface jump group than in the stable supporting surface jump group in the intergroup comparison (p<.05).
Conclusions: The conclusion has been reached in this study that the jumping exercise on the unstable supporting surface could be a more effective in improving FAI than the regular surface.
Background: Although previous researches have developed interventions for neck problems, headache, and temporomandibular disorder in patients with forward head posture (FHP), changes in masticatory muscle tone or stiffness as FHP worsening have not been investigated.
Objective: To examine changes in masticatory muscle tone and stiffness through craniovertebral angle (CVA). Design: Cross sectional study
Methods: The subjects were 21 healthy males with normal head posture. Three CVA were established for posture measurement in which the bilateral anterior temporal and masseter muscles were measured during the subjects maintained a series of postures.
Results: The Right masseter muscle significantly increased in stiffness with advancing FHP (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the muscle tone or stiffness of any other masticatory muscles, and no significant differences were found in bilateral masticatory muscle tone or stiffness in each measurement posture.
Conclusions: This study suggests that the increased stiffness of the right masseter muscle as the FHP worsened requires consideration in physical therapy assessment and intervention.
Background: Aging reduces cognitive abilities, including visual memory (VM) and visual discrimination (VD). Since common cortical networks subserve eye movement and attention, voluntary eye movement may improve visual attention. Visual selective attention was major role for memory, and visual memory and visual attention are intimately related.
Objective: To identify the improvement in VD and VM, after implementing the eye movement program consisting of saccadic eye movement (SEM) and pursuit eye movement (PEM) in the institutionalized healthy elderly. Design: Randomized controlled trial.
Methods: The study involved a sample of 36 participants, and the mean age was 79.03 years (range 76~84 years). They were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=16) and control group (n=20). Participants in the experimental group performed SEM 5 times per week for 4 weeks: twice daily at the same time in the morning and afternoon. The program was carried out for 3 minutes, and it consisted of SEM and PEM. The target’s moving frequency was set at 0.5 Hz. VM and VD at the baseline and post-intervention were measured using Motor-Free Visual Perception test-4 (MFVPT-4).
Results: VM significantly improved in the experimental group (p < .01), and significant differences were observed compared to the control group (p < .01). There was no significant change in VD.
Conclusion: The eye movement program consisting of SEM and PEM increased VM more than VD. Therefore, eye movement program was feasible interventions for improving VM in institutionalized elderly persons.
Background : Methods of wearing a baby carrier have suggested; however, there have been no studies suggesting ideal ways.
Objective : To investigate muscular fatigue and balance of the waist during baby carrier are worn on the front, the side, and the back of the body.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial (single blind)
Methods : The subjects of this study were 20 healthy men and women in their 20s, who underwent tests of muscular fatigue and balance of the waist bones based on types of wearing baby carrier. Electromyogram (EMG) patches were attached to the L2 and the L4 for testing muscular fatigue, while a device for measuring proprioceptive senses was used to assess balance ability. The measurements were performed before wearing the baby carrier and after 30 minutes of normal walking. The methods of wearing the baby carrier included wearing on the front, the side, and the back of the body.
Results : The time taken to adjust the balance was shorter than other types of wearing during the baby carrier were worn on the side, and the ratio of lumbar flexion and relaxation was shown insignificant. Conclusions : These results suggested that wearing the carriers on the side was most effective on reducing fatigue and enhancing balance ability of the waist.
Background: A number of researchers have attempted to improve the balance of stroke patients, however there is still a question as to whether taping is effective in increasing balance.
Objective: To determine the effect of paretic and non-paretic side taping on the balance ability in patients with stroke.
Design: A single-blind randomized controlled trial
Methods: This randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial with a repeated measures study included 45 subjects who were randomly assigned to paretic side taping groups (n=15), non-paretic side taping groups (n=15), and trunk exercise groups (n=15). Trunk exercise and paretic side taping groups had taping on the paralyzed erector spinae, while the non-paretic side taping group had taping on the non-paralyzed erector spinae. Trunk exercises were performed for 30 minutes to promote core muscles. The balance ability measured the center of pressure movement (paretic side, non-paretic side,forward, backward, limit of stability) in the sitting position. All measurements were evaluated using BioRescue.
Results: All three groups showed significant increase in all variables after 4 weeks. The paretic and non-paretic side taping groups had a significant increase in all variables after 30 min of attachment. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups.
Conclusions: Paralysis and non-paralysis taping improved the balance ability of patients with stroke in an immediate effect of 30 min. However, after 4 weeks of intervention, taping with trunk exercise did not differ from single trunk exercise. In future studies, various analyses need to be conducted through more diverse evaluations.
Background: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) causes neurological symptoms by compression of the dura mater and nerve roots. Due to the changed in proprioception inputs that can result in abnormal postural pattern, delayed reaction time, and changed in deep tendon reflex.
Objective: To investigate the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises on motor neuron excitability and neurological symptoms in patients with LDH.
Design: Randomized Controlled Trial (single blind)
Methods: Thirty patients with LDH were recruited; they were randomly divided into the balance center stabilization resistance exercise group (n=15) and the Nordic walking group (n=15). Each group underwent their corresponding 20- minute intervention once a day, four times a week, for four weeks. Participants’ motor neuron excitability and low back pain were assessed before and after the four-week intervention.
Results: There were significant differences in all variables within each group (p<.05). There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the changes of upper motor neuron excitability and pain (p<.05), but not in the changes of lower motor neuron excitability and Korean Oswestry Disability Index.
Conclusion: Lumbar stabilization exercises utilizing concurrent contraction of deep and superficial muscles improved low back function in patients with LDH by lowering upper motor neuron excitability than compared to exercises actively moving the limbs. Lumbar stabilization exercises without pain have a positive impact on improving motor neuron excitability.
Background: Vibration exercise after ankle surgery improves proprioception and ankle muscle strength through vibration stimulation. Objective: To examine the effects of vibration exercise on the ankle stability. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial (single blind) Methods: Twenty soccer players were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. The Vibration exercise program was conducted 12 weeks and 3 times a week. Ankle joint proprioceptive sensory test and Isokinetic muscle strength test were performed using Biodex system pro Ⅲ to measure plantar flexion / dorsiflexion and eversion / inversion motion. Results: The result of isokinetic test of ankle joint is showed significant improvement in all measurement items, such as leg flexion, lateral flexion, external and internal muscle forces, compared to previous ones by performing vibration movements for 12 weeks. However, in the comparison group, plantar flexor (30°), eversion muscle (120°), inversion (30°) of limb muscle strength were significantly improvedcompared with the previous phase; was no significant difference in dorsi-flexion. There was no significant difference between groups in all the items. Conclusions: In this study, we analyzed the effects of rehabilitation exercise on soccer players who had reconstructed with an ankle joint ligament injury through vibration exercise device. As a result, we could propose an effective exercise method to improve the ability, and confirmed the applicability as an appropriate exercise program to prevent ankle injuries and help quick return.
Background: Breathing is the essential step of Pilates exercise and can be used to activate core muscles. Although the effects of breathing exercise on pain, breathing muscles, and cervical posture have been extensively studied, little is known about the impact of Pilates breathing on spinal posture and alignment.
Purpose: To determine the effect of 3D-Pilates breathing exercise on spinal curvature and alignment of healthy adults during corrected to normal alignment.
Design: One group pre-post test design Methods: Eighteen participants were given a 3D-pilates breathing exercise twice a week (20 minutes per session) for three weeks and warmed up for 10 minutes before each exercise session. To examine spinal curvature and alignment of each subject, this study used radiation free rasterstereography (Formetric Ⅲ, Germany). Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were performed to determine the difference between pre and post exercise.
Results: There were statistically significant differences in height (p<.001), kyphosis angle (p<.05), trunk imbalance (p<.05), kyphotic apex (p<.01), cervical fleche (p<.05), pelvic tilt (p<.01), and lateral deviation (p<.05) between before and after 3D Pilates breathing exercise. However, there was no significant difference in lordosis angle.
Conclusions: The study results indicated that three week 3D-pilates breathing exercise program could be presented as an effective rehabilitation method for improving spinal curvature and alignment.
Background: Cervical mobilization has been applied mainly for the improvement of arm and neck movements and pain reduction, and little research has been done to improve the executive function. Since this kind of so-called mechanical neck pain is one of most common symptoms, there are controversial issues about this with spine alignment. Posteroanterior (PA) mobilization from the Maitland concept is a process of examination, assessment, and treatment of neuromusculoskeletal disorder by manipulative physical therapy.
Objective: To examine the short-term benefits of mobilization for patients with non-specific neck pain.
Design: Dual-group Pretest-Posttest Design from the Quasi-Experimental research
Methods: Fourteen participants (male 8, female 6; 20’s of their age) with nonspecific neck pains which are distributed all the unilateral or bilateral body side were recruited. Participants were categorized to Neck Pain with Movement Coordination Impairments (NPMCI) and Neck Pain with Mobility Deficits (NPMD) groups according to the results of physical examination. Professional physical therapist who has over 15-years-of clinical experience applicated manipulative therapy for the neck pain, an occupational therapist only conducted evaluations; K-NDI (Korean version of the Neck Disability Index), VAS (Visual Analog Scale), BDS-K (Korean version of Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale) for decreasing possible adverse effects; there were no person who reported other symptoms followed 4 weeks from the trial.
Results: In the NPMCI group, data analysis indicated statistical differences between the PA mobilization interventions in NDI and BDS-K; even though, pain was reduced in VAS, this is not a significantly differ. In the NPMD group, data analysis represented statistical differences between the PA mobilization interventions in NDI, VAS and BDS-K; the scores were represented to be increased or the pain got relief.
Conclusions: PA mobilization techniques according to Maitland concept have beneficial effects in patients with neck pain and other clinical positive effects which included neck disability, pain itself and motor function of upper extremity.
Background: Effect of cervical and lumbar tractions on the reduction in the angle of curvature and the effect of a correction exercise or a general traction method on balance, muscle strength, pain, and body alignment, however insufficient research has been undertaken on self traction exercises targeting patients with scoliosis.
Purpose: To determine the effect of cervical and lumbar tractions on the reduction in the angle of curvature and the effect of a correction exercise or a general traction method on balance, muscle strength, pain, and body alignment.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial (single blinded)
Methods: Twelve adults(20s) with scoliosis were included in this study and performed a traction program that was composed of a 5-min warm-up exercise, a 15-min main exercise, and a 5-min cool-down exercise (25 minutes in total), three times a week for four weeks. The Chiro traction machine was used for the self-traction exercise. Vertebral alignment, muscle strength, and flexibility were compared before and after the intervention using the paired T-test.
Results: The scoliosis angle, pelvic torsion, and lumbar extensor were significantly changed by intervention; however, there was no significant difference in flexibility. Conclusion: The results revealed that self-traction exercise activated blood flow through the extension and contraction of muscles, effectively increasing the function of the muscles around the vertebrae.