The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of somatotype on the VO2max and hormone (adrenaline and noradrenaline) during treadmill walking. Forty healthy men participated and were randomized to four groups: Male 1 (M1) group, Male 2 (M2) group, Male 3 (M3) group, and Male 4 (M4) group. M4 group is the largest body type, and M1 group is the smaller the body type. Participants walked at a speed of 3.5 km/h for five minutes at an incline angle of 0°, 5°, and 10° in the treadmill. Maximum oxygen consumption and hormone (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were measured. In the results, VO2max has significantly increased according to the degree of the treadmill inclination, and M4 group (larger body type) consumed more oxygen than the M1 group (smaller body type). In the hormone, there was a significant increase in adrenaline concentration after walking in all groups, and there was a significant difference in M1-M4, M2-M4 and M3-M4. The noradrenaline concentration significantly increased after treadmill gait in all groups, and there was no significant difference in noradrenaline between groups. This study suggests that the larger body type consumes more oxygen during walking, and treadmill walking contributes to an increase in the concentration of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Regularly participating in physical activity is known to improve quality of life and body composition in elderly with stroke. However, comparatively less physical activity is performed by the stroke survivors. The factors related to inactivity in elderly female stroke survivors have not been elucidated. Therefore, this study aims to compare the quality of life factors and limb compositions between the active and inactive elderly female stroke survivors. Forty nine subjects between the ages of 65 to 75 years were selected from the KNHANES data between the years 2009 to 2011. In addition, 186 agematched healthy peers were also selected for limb composition comparisons. The subjects were groups based on walking days per week: walkers; 3 days or more, non-walkers; less than 3 days per week. BMI and waist circumference were within the obesity ranges for both the non-walkers and walkers. As results, the trend for greater fat (±10%) and lean mass (±30%) differences were observed for non-walker and walkers, respectively. Significantly greater reasons for function limitation by stroke and hypertension were reported with significantly greater self-care difficulty was shown by the walkers. In conclusion, elderly female stroke survivals may require customized motivation and continuous support to participate in physical activity regularly.
The purpose of this study was to measure empathy in physical therapy students using a self-report measure of empathy. One hundred seventy students from three different majors participated in the study. The physical therapy group consisted of 49 people, 24 men and 25 women. The psychotherapy group has 59 people, 17 males and 42 females. 62 participants were randomly assigned to the engineering group, with 18 males and 44 females. It was hypothesized that empathy would be higher in physical therapy students compared to those in engineering. Empathy Quotient (EQ) supported the research hypothesis, with students in physical theapy higher than students in engineering There is no statistically significant difference in the EQ between physical therapy and psychotherapy. There were also differences in empathy according to major and gender. Our research suggests that empathy needs to be promoted through education and training.
The number of healthy older adults is rapidly increasing recently owing to the increase of the elderly population. Therefore, programs for improving the cognitive functions of these healthy seniors are actively being expanded. This study aimed to prevent the decline of cognitive function due to aging by applying a program enhancing cognitive functions to healthy older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program (CoTras), which is commonly used in cognitive therapy for the aging, on the memory of the elderly. The subjects had scored at least 24 points in MMSE-K. CoTras was applied once a week (30 minutes) for one month. Electronic pegboard programs were used as an evaluation tool: order memory (difficulty=low) and location memory (difficulty=medium). The order and location memories were compared before and after the intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test was used for the study at the significance level of α=.05. The results showed that CoTras significantly improved order memory and location memory. Therefore, CoTras can be applied to the healthy elderly for improving that memory improvement training has a positive impact on healthy older adults result in the development of memory enhancement programs can be expanded in the future.
Smoking can be a significant cause of lung diseases and reduced respiratory functions. Among soldiers, smoking may have a negative impact on their health (physical strength) and well being. Information on differences in the respiratory functions of smokers and nonsmokers in the military services and the effects of the smoking duration and amount (i.e., the number of cigarettes smoked per day) would be useful. This study investigated smoking durations and smoking amounts among young male soldiers (N = 61). The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacities (FEV1/FEC) were measured FVC, FEV1, or FEV1/FEC of smokers and nonsmokers were not significantly different, and FVC and FEV1 were inversely proportional to smoking duration. Besides, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was not correlated with respiratory functions. These findings may be attributed to the effect of the strenuous physical activity (e.g., military drills) undertaken by soldiers on their respiratory functions. Despite the lack of evidence for a difference in the respiratory functions of smokers and nonsmokers, this study recommends ongoing respiratory function management through smoking cessation programs and respiratory physiotherapy to manage the respiratory functions of Korean smoking soldiers.
This study examined the correlation between power error (PE) and velocity error (VE) according to the condition and frequency of self-controlled feedback (SCF) during knee extension. One hundred participants were randomly assigned to 30% SCF, 70% SCF, 30% yoked feedback (YF), 70% YF and control group, respectively. The SCF group was provided with feedback when they requested it, whereas the YF group did not influence the feedback schedule. Participants in the control group were not given any visual feedback during the experiment. The isotonic, isometric, and isokinetic dynamometer (PRIMUS RS, BTE, USA) was used to measure the power and velocity error during knee extension. The collected data was analyzed using a Pearson test and SPSS 21.0. The correlation between PE and VE according to the condition and frequency of feedback on each phase during knee extension was significant. Both PE and VE were significantly higher when the feedback was provided with high frequency, passive, and no feedback. Our study suggests that application of SCF can help to improve the proprioception of the healthy person while reducing errors through low frequency and active feedback.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sling exercise on muscle activity and balance on football players with chronic ankle instability. Eight subjects performed Biodex and sling exercises for four weeks and compared the muscle activity and balance ability of the uninjured and injured feet. Stable and unstable foot % MVIC did not change significantly after treatment in all muscles. The total balance ability was not significantly different between the two groups, however, increased only in the unstable side. The anterior/posterior balance ability also represented no significant difference between the groups and was significantly improved only in the unstable side. The medial/lateral balance ability was not significantly different between the groups and was significantly improved only in the unstable side. This study suggests that sling exercise contributes to improving % MVIC, total balance ability, anterior/ posterior balance ability, and medial/lateral balance ability of the unstable side.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of joint mobilization and manual stretching exercises in patients with hallux valgus. Twenty-three participants were divided into two groups; joint mobilization (n=11) and manual stretching exercises (n=12). The subjects participated in the experiment for 15minutes, three times a week, four weeks. The joint mobilization (Grade III, Maitland) was performed to experimental group for a minute and then rested for 10 seconds for each set. The manual stretching was performed to control group with three exercise session (preparatory and finishing exercises, agonist contraction exercises, agonist contraction and hold-relax exercises). In the results of the study, intragroup comparison of the deformity angles (DA) was shown to decrease from 15.18° to 13.09° in the joint mobilization group (p<.05) and from 19.00° to 16.83° in the stretching exercises group (p<.05). However, left static foot pressure (LSFP), right static foot pressure (RSFP), left dynamic foot pressure (LDFP) and right dynamic foot pressure (RDFP) did not significantly increase or decrease after the experiment. Intergroup differences also were not statistically significant in all variables (p>.05). The current study suggests that JM and MSE are effective in decreasing the DA in patients with hallux valgus.
To examine the changes in pain, the severity of the neck disorder, craniovertebral angle, and muscle activity in young adults with forward head posture. 37 “N” University students in their 20s with forward head posture, including both male and female participants. Measurement of pain, NDI (neck disorder index) craniovertebral angle, and muscle activity were taken before and after the 6 week intervention period. The pain was measured using the visual analog scale. The severity of the neck disorder was measured using the NDI The craniovertebral angle was measured by taking a photo. The muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography. Neck posture correction exercises paired with proprioceptive training is the most effective intervention for reducing pain. Both neck posture correction exercises paired with Kinesio taping or proprioceptive training are effective interventions for addressing neck disability, craniocervical angle, and muscle activity. Neck posture correction exercises paired with Kinesio taping or proprioceptive training are more effective at addressing pain, neck disorder, craniocervical angle, and muscle activity than performing the neck posture correction exercises alone.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the comparison of balance and muscle strength between dominant and non-dominant legs in adults. Thirty adults in their 20s participated in this study. The dominant and non-dominant legs were selected based on the dominant hands of the target. The subject's muscle strength of legs was measured with Nicholas MMT, and the balance was measured with BIO-Rescue. We compared the dominant and non-dominant legs based on the results. The result, indicated no statistical difference on balance and muscle strength between dominant and non-dominant legs(p>.05). The results of this study will be helpful in setting the effective treatment direction and treatment level, and in controlling posture, balance and motor function.
Stroke can cause leg weakness, sensory abnormalities, and balance disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elastic taping on postural sway in patients with stroke. This study randomly applied elastic taping to 20 patients with stroke in two ways. The center of pressure (COP) distribution was measured before and after the elastic taping. The measurement variables were COP area and length, and measurements were performed immediately after taping. The elastic taping on tibialis anterior muscle showed a significant decrease in COP area and length compared to that without elastic taping. The elastic taping on gastrocnemius muscles showed a significant decrease in COP area and length compared to that without elastic taping. There was no significant difference in COP area and length between the elastic taping on tibialis anterior muscle and gastrocnemius muscles. Our results suggested that applying elastic taping on the ankle joints is effective in decreasing postural sway after in patients with stroke.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the needs for environmental improvement and dementia patients' activity of daily living (ADL) and behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in dementia patients living in urban type dementia care villages. The subjects of this study were 70 households with cognitive impairment and dementia among residents of dementia care village in Gunsan City. The survey was conducted with the permission of their family. Frequency analysis and descriptive statistical analysis were performed on the main variables to analyze the characteristics of the subjects. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to verify the relationship between the two variables. According to the analysis results, the order of environment improvement was in the order of entrance (51.4%), toilet and stairs (48.6%), kitchen (11.4%), bedroom and laundry room (10.0%). In the relationship between the variables, The ADL was correlated with age (r=.315, p <.01), BPSD (r=.322, p<.01) and living environment inconvenience (r=.640, p<.01) while, living environment inconvenience correlated with environment improvement need (r=.669, p<.01). This study suggests that improvement of the residential environment of dwellers in dementia care villages, especially the stairway and entrance hall is necessary.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise and joint mobilization on ankle joint range of motion (ROM), plantar pressure, and balance in subjects with stroke. Thirty patients (n=30) were organized into three groups, each of which received different treatments: PNF stretching (n=10), joint mobilization (n=10), and joint mobilization and PNF stretching combined (n=10). Each group received three exercise sessions per week for four weeks. The ankle ROM was measured using a goniometer, and plantar pressure and balance ability were measured using BioResque static posturography. In comparison within each group, the joint mobilization group and the joint mobilization with PNF stretching group showed significant improvements in ankle ROM, plantar pressure, and balance ability (p<.05). In comparison between the groups, a statistically significant difference was found in SECS change between the PNF stretching group, joint mobilization group and the joint mobilization with PNF stretching group. This study found demonstrates that the joint mobilization and joint mobilization with the PNF stretching methods were effective in improving ankle ROM, plantar pressure, and balance ability in stroke patients.
The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in balance and proprioception of adults with limited ankle joint dorsiflexion, after the application of talocrural joint mobilization. The subjects of this study included 23 college students in their twenties with limited ankle joint dorsiflexion. The students were randomly assigned to the ankle joint mobilization group (AJMG, n=12) and the control group (CG, n=11). After 2 weeks of intervention using grade III talocrural joint mobilization in the anterior-posterior movement, the balance and proprioception of the subjects were assessed. Static/dynamic balance capabilities and ankle proprioception were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. The dynamic balance and proprioception of AJMG were significantly improved after intervention (p<.05), In the comparison between the groups after the intervention, the dynamic balance and proprioceptive sense of AJMG were significantly improved compared to the control group (p<.05). This study suggests that AJMG can help improve the dynamic balance and proprioception.
This epidemiological study aims to determine the incidence, areas, severity, and time of occurrence of sports injuries in elite female rowing athletes who were training at the Jincheon National Training Center for a 1-year period from January 1st to December 31st, 2017. According to the daily injury reports form of the IOC, sport events, weight division, injured area, and cause of injury were recorded, and the following results were found. Upon comparing the incidence of sports injuries, there was a significant difference in weight of double scull athletes. In terms of sports, there was a significant difference between pair and athletes who played double skull. Injuries occurred most commonly in the lower extremity (40.5%), followed by the trunk (35.1%), upper extremity (24.3%). for all athletes in rowing. The knee and lumbar spine/lower back were the most common injury sites. More than 60% of all injuries were Level III, and injuries occurred most frequently during training, followed by weight training and then competition.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of Evjenth-Hamberg stretching of the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and pectoralis major on the lung function of adults with forward neck posture. The subjects were 20 adult students in P university located in Pohang, Korea, whose degree of head forward displacement measured according to NEW YORK state posture test was mild. The subjects were randomly and equally assigned to the Evjenth- Hamberg Stretching group (EHSG, n=10) and the control group (CG, n=10). Their forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured before and after the experiment. In within-group comparison, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in FVC, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEE) after the experiment, compared to before the experiment (.05<p). In between-group comparison, the PEE of EHSG was statistically significantly higher than CG (.05<p). Regarding SVC, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in inspiratory vital capacity after the experiment, compared to before the experiment. With regard to MVV, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in their tidal volume during maximal voluntary ventilation after the experiment compared to before the experiment. Our results indicated that Evjenth- Hamberg stretching was an effective physical therapy intervention to improve the lung function of adults with FHP by correcting their head forward displacement.
The present study aimed to investigate rapid weight loss (RWL) and consequent physical and psychological challenges among judo athletes at the national athlete training center in 2017. The following results were obtained. Judo athletes used weight loss methods such as “gradually reduce meal portion,” “skip meals,” “limit water intake,” “wear sweat suit for training,” and “use sauna,” and had physical and mental distress from such unhealthy weight management practices. Information about weight loss was obtained from “colleagues or senior athletes,” “Internet,” and “head coach or coach,” and not experts such as nutritionists or physicians. Thus, athletes are recommended to employ healthy weight control methods based on advice from experts, such as nutritionists and physicians
The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of lumbar rotational mobilization under the single-leg standing (SLS) position. Fifteen healthy individuals were recruited, and randomized to agroup of trunk rotational exercise (TRE) and lumbar rotational mobilization (LRM). Trunk twist rotational exercise was performed to the TRE group, and mobilization was applied to the LRM group on the lumbar spine. Velocity of the center of pressure (VCOP) and center of pressure (COP) for each participant were measured through SLS. COPs were not significantly increased or decreased after treatment in both groups. VCOPs also did not change considerably except on the right side when the eye was closed. There was no significant difference between COPs and VCOPs in two groups. This study suggests that trunk rotation exercise and lumbar rotation mobilization would have similar effects on balance ability.
Low back pain (LBP) is the most common reason for seeking physical therapy (PT) care. Recent studies suggest that axial loading can have a positive impact on the intervertebral disc by improving its tensile strength. Further, whole body vibration (WBV) appears to improve spinal muscle relaxation. Therefore, this case study describes the use of axial loading using a minitrampoline in a female with chronic LBP. This case report is a single subject design. This patient is a 29-year-old female with a six-month history of low back pain following a motor vehicle accident. MRI found herniated discs at L4 and L5, clinical tests were positive for pain in the L4 and L5 dermatome and myotome the slump test was positive for neural tension, and LBP was constant at 4-6/10 over the past four months. She received axial loading exercises using a mini-trampoline and performed six sessions that were, scheduled twice a week for three weeks. Her Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score improved from 40% at the time of her first visit to 22% at her final visit. Pain measure on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) after the first treatment was 7/10, and her pain after the final treatment was 0/10. These changes in the pain scores are clinically significant and exceed the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). This patient had a significant improvement in her pain using the NPRS and the ODI. This case study suggests that axial loading may be an effective treatment for some individuals with discogenic chronic low back pain.