Background: Previous robot-mediated gait training has been proven several limitations such as pointless repeated motion training, decreased presence, etc. In this research, adult stroke patients were participated in robot-mediated gait training accompanied with or without virtual reality program.
Objectives: Exploring whether the results indicated virtual reality system has contribution to muscle strength and balance ability.
Design: A case series research, cross-over trial.
Methods: Eleven participants (male 4, female 7) with adults diagnosed as stroke from medical doctor ware engaged. The participants received 2 treatment sessions of identical duration, robot-assisted gait training with virtual reality and robot-assisted gait training with screen-off randomly crossed over include 1-day for each person of wash-out period. The parameter was muscle activity, the researchers assessed sEMG (surface electromyography).
Results: The result showed less muscle activities during training in robotassisted gait training with virtual reality circumstances, and these indicated muscles were gluteus medius muscle, vastus medialis muscle, vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis muscle, semimembranosus muscle, gastrocnemius- lateral head, and soleus muscle (P<.05).
Conclusion: In this study, we analyzed the outcome of muscle activity for clinical inference of robot-assisted gait training with virtual reality (VR). Less muscle activity was measured in the treatment accompanied by VR, therefore, a more systematic, in-depth and well-founded level of follow-up research is needed.
Background: Weakness of the trunk muscles decreases the trunk control ability of stroke patients, which is significantly related to balance and gait. Objectives: To compare the impact of diagonal pattern self-exercise on an unstable surface and a stable surface for trunk rehabilitation on trunk control, balance, and gait ability in stroke patients. Design: Nonequivalent control group design. Methods: Twenty four participants were randomized into the experimental group (diagonal pattern self-exercise while sitting on an unstable surface, n=12) and the control group (diagonal pattern self-exercise while sitting on a stable surface, n=12). All interventions were conducted for 30 minutes, three times a week for four weeks, and the trunk impairment scale (TIS), berg balance scale (BBS), functional gait assessment (FGA), and G-walk were measured. Results: All groups indicated significant increases in all variables (TIS, BBS, FGA, cadence, speed, stride length) after four weeks. The TIS, BBS, FGA, cadence, gait speed, and stride length group-by-time were significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: We found that, in stroke patients, diagonal pattern self-exercise on an unstable surface is a more effective method for improving trunk control, balance, and gait ability than diagonal pattern self-exercise on a stable surface.
Background: Ankle sprain in the Lead Leg Side (ALLS) is common in fencing athletes, and studies comparing the ankle range of motion (ROM) and strength of both legs are insufficient. Objectvies: To compare the ankle ROM and hip strength between two legs in fencing athletes who has ankle instability in the lead leg side.
Design: Cross-sectional design.
Methods: Seven fencing athletes with ankle instability participated in this study, and they randomly assigned into ankle in the Lead Leg Side (ALLS) and ankle in the Rear Leg Side (ARLS). Instability was determined by the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT), and then joint ROM and hip muscle strength were measured.
Results: There were significant differences in dorsiflexion ROM, hip strength (extension and abduction) between the ALLS with ankle instability and ARLS (P<.05).
Conclusion: This study suggests that the ankle ROM and hip muscle strength of ARLS are greater than ALLS in fencing athletes with ankle instability.
Background: Many trials have been conducted the methods and types of intervention of form rollers, but no research has been done yet that mixes the methods and types of intervention. Objectives: To analyze the effects of myofascial release on the improvement of range of motion (ROM), flexibility, pain pressure threshold, and balance. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: All subjects measured ROM, flexibility, pressure pain threshold, and dynamic balance by pre-test. After pre-test, subjects were randomized that static-vibration foam rolling group (n=12), dynamic-vibration foam rolling group (n=12), general foam rolling group (n=12). For the intervention, 3 sets of 90 seconds were applied to each group, and rest time was set to 60 seconds between sets. In the post-test and follow-up test after 10 minutes, all three groups were measured the ROM, flexibility, pressure pain threshold, and dynamic balance. Results: The results of comparing ROM, flexibility, pressure pain thresholds, dynamic balance ability appeared higher significant difference in the prepost- 10 minutes follow up test in comparison between time in the intragroup (P<.001). As a result of comparing the change of pre-post-10 minutes follow up, static vibration foam rolling showed higher significant difference compared to control groups (P<.001). Conclusion: Through this study, when foam rolling is applied within the same intervention time, static foam rolling can be expected to have a better effect than the existing dynamic foam rolling as well as vibration foam roller can expect better effect than general foam rolling.
Background: Kinesiology taping (KT) is a method that helps immediately increase muscle activation, strength and joint stability by being attached to various skeletal muscles and structures of the body. Objectives: To investigate the effect of KT applied below the hyolaryngeal complex on the movement of the hyolaryngeal complex during swallowing in patients with dysphagia after stroke. Design: One-group, pre-post design. Methods: Twenty individuals with dysphagia after stroke participated in this study. KT was applied to the sternum and both clavicles from the hyolaryngeal complex. We analyzed the motion of the hyolaryngeal complex during swallowing with and placebo KT and KT using the Image-J software with videofluoroscopic swallowing study. In addition, a 0-to-10 numerical rating self-report scale was used to check the required effort and resistance felt during swallowing. Results: KT condition showed that the anterior and superior movement of the hyoid bone during swallowing was significantly lower than placebo KT (P<.05, all). Also, KT condition showed that the anterior and superior movement of the larynx during swallowing was significantly lower than placebo KT (P<.05, all). In result of statistical comparison between KT group and placebo KT group, the KT group showed significantly higher self-report scale score than the placebo KT group in terms of two category; the required effort and resistance felt (P<.05, all). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that KT applied below the hyolaryngeal complex inhibits the anterior and superior movement of hyoid bone and larynx during swallowing of patients with dysphagia after stroke.
Background: Recently, the kinesiology taping (KT) method was reported to be effective in improving walking ability in foot drop patients after stroke, but the clinical basis is still unclear. Objectives: The KT method was compared with ankle-foot orthotics (AFO) to investigate gait ability in foot drop patients after stroke. Design: Crossover study design. Methods: In this study, 11 stroke patients with foot drop participated. Walking ability of all subjects for both conditions (KT and AFO) was measured using the GAITRite system. The order of application of the two conditions was determined randomly by drawing lots. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare walking ability between the two conditions. The level of statistical significance was set at P<.05. Results: There were no significant differences between the KT and AFO methods in terms of velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length (P>.05, all). Conclusion: This study recommends KT as an alternative to the AFO, since KT provides evidence of preventing of foot drops and improving gait ability in stroke patient.
Background: Weakness of the abdominal and mid thoracic muscles the lead to thoracic kyphosis of stroke patients. The trunk muscles activity of stroke patients is significantly related to upper extremity.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of seated exercise of thoracic and abdominal muscles on upper extremity function and trunk muscles activity in stroke patients.
Design: One-group pretest-posttest design.
Methods: A total of 27 stroke patients were recruited. All stroke patient were given seated abdominal exercise (posterior pelvic tilt exercises) and thoracic exercise (postural-correction exercise). All exercises were conducted for 30 minutes, three times a week for four weeks. The manual function test (MFT) and electromyography (EMG) were measured, and EMG electrodes were attached to thoracic paraspinal muscles and lower rectus abdominal muscles. EMG signal is expressed as %RVC (reference voluntary contraction).
Results: Experimental group showed significant increases in abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles activity and MFT total score, items of arm motion (forward elevation of the upper extremity, lateral elevation of the upper extremity, touch the occiput with the palm) in MFT after four weeks.
Conclusion: These results suggest that, in stroke patients, seated exercise of thoracic and abdominal muscles contribute to improve trunk muscles activity and upper extremity function in stroke patients.
Background: Based on the understanding of the muscle activation relationship between the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles to according to the angle of motion during external rotation on glenohumeral joint, effective shoulder joint strengthening exercise for the prevention and rehabilitation of shoulder injury due to muscle strength imbalance can be performed by achieving the ideal muscle activity ratio during exercise.
Objectives: To compare and analyze the muscle activation changes and activity ratio of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles according to the glenohumeral external rotation angle.
Design: Quasi-randomized trial.
Methods: The study included 48 healthy male and female adults who provided informed consent for participation in the study. All the subjects performed isometric glenohumeral external rotation by setting the angle of motion to 30°, 45°, and 60° using a 5 kg resistance weight pulley. On surface electromyography, the differences in muscle activation and activity ratio between the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles were investigated.
Results: A significant difference in muscle activation was found in the comparison between the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles according to the glenohumeral external rotation angle (P<.05). The muscle activation levels of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles were highest at the external rotation angles of 30° and 60°, respectively. The muscle activity ratio between the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles also showed a significant difference (P<.05) and was highest at the shoulder external rotation angle of 30°.
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that muscle activity is the highest at the shoulder external rotation angle of 30° in healthy individuals.
Background: Chronic ankle instability is a common injury that decreases balance and negatively affects functional movements, such as jumping and landing.
Objectives: To analyze the effect of taping types and jump heights on balance with eyes open and closed during jump landings in chronic ankle instability.
Design: Within-subject design.
Methods: The study involved 22 patients with chronic ankle instability. They performed both double-leg and single-leg drop jump landings using three conditions (elastic taping, non-elastic taping, and barefoot) on three different jump platforms (30, 38, and 46 cm). Balance was measured using the Romberg's test with eyes open and closed.
Results: Interaction effect was not statistically significant. Balance with eyes open and closed was significantly improved in both the elastic taping and non-elastic taping conditions compared to the barefoot condition. There was no significant difference according to the jump height. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic ankle instability demonstrated increased balance ability with eyes open and closed when jump landing. Elastic taping and non-elastic taping on the ankle joint can positively affect balance during landing in individuals with chronic ankle instability.
Background: Spinal Mobilization is one of the manual therapy technique that clinicians have used to treat pain, however, there is still a lack of research on changes in strength in healthy people.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of posterior-anterior lumbar mobilization on lower limb strength in healthy individuals.
Design: Two-group pretest-posttest design.
Methods: In this study, 23 healthy subjects aged 20 years were assigned to 12 lumbar mobilization group (LMG) and 12 sham group (SG) to perform intervention and measurement through pre- and post-design. Intervention was performed in LMG with grade III~IV on L3-5 of the lumbar spine, and lumbar mobilization was performed for each segment. After intervention, knee flexion and extension strength were measured. To measure the main effect on muscle strength, a comparative analysis was conducted using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: In LMG, knee flexor and extensor strength were increased significantly at 60°/s (P<.05). In addition, the extensors of LMG and SG were significantly different only at 60°/s, and the flexors were significantly different between groups at both 60°/s and 180°/s (P<.05).
Conclusion: In healthy individuals, lumbar mobilization results in improvement of strength of knee flexor and extensor, and additional experiments on the effect of mobilization on the lumbar spine on functional changes in the lower limbs will be needed.
Background: The effect of mobilization on lumbar back pain has been fully described in several clinical aspects, but evidence for muscle strength would be still less clear.
Objective: To assess the effect of lumbar mobilization on lower limb strength in healthy individuals.
Methods and Analysis: Healthy people aged 18-65 will be included regardless of race or sex. Original peer-reviewed primary reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be included. Electronic databases, such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Pedro, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov will be searched from inception until July 30. Only studies published in English will be included in this review. Two reviewers will complete the screening for eligibility independently, and the other two reviewers will also complete the risks of data extraction and bias assessment independently. Lower Limb strength will be assessed as primary outcome, and particular intervention or participant characteristics will be assessed as the secondary outcomes. Meta-analysis will be conducted using Review Manager 5.3.3, and evidence level will be assessed using the method for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Outcomes will be presented as the weighted mean difference or standardized mean difference with 95% CI. If I2 ≤ 50%, P>.1, the fixed effect model will be used, otherwise, random-effects model will be used. Ethics and dissemination: This review might not be necessary ethical approval because it does not require individual patient’s data; these findings will be published in conference presentations or peer-reviewed journal articles. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020150144.