Cytokines are known to function as regulatory molecules that can be produced by virtually every nucleated cell type in the body, including lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and many others. Cytokines include lymphocyte-derived factors (lymphokines), monocyte-derived factors (monokines), hematopoietic factors (colony-stimulating factors), connective tissue/ growth factors, and chemotactic chemokines. Cytokines released in response to infection can affect tumor development in different ways. When exposed to infectious agents, cytokines are secreted by sentinel cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. These cytokines include interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as others, such as IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18. When released in sufficient quantities, these molecules can cause inflammation. Chronic inflammation is highly associated with tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. In this article, we review the roles and mechanisms of cytokines in tumor development.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of macrophages on growth of human colon cancer cells. The results showed that co-culture of colon cancer cells with macrophages inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells (HCT116 and SW620) depending on the number of macrophages, RAW 264.7 cells, and activated THP-1 cells accompanied by down regulation of pSTAT3 in cancer cells. We also found that expression and release of cancer cell growth inhibitory cytokines, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-10, was increased in macrophages. Blocking of the STAT3 pathway with specific inhibitor and siRNA of STAT3 abolished the growth of colon cancer cells and expression of IL-1ra and IL-10. In addition, neutralization of IL-1ra and IL-10 with antibodies resulted in reversal of macrophage-induced inhibition of cancer cell growth. These data showed that IL-1ra and IL-10 released from macrophages inhibit growth of colon cancer cells through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway.
본 실험에서는 GI활성이 높은 alkalophilic Streptomyces sp.를 사용하여 2% k-carrageenan에 균체를 고정화한 후 고정화 균체의 효소학적 특성을 살펴보았다. pH stability는 pH가 7.5∼8.5에서 GI활성이 가장 높았으며, reaction temperature는 70℃, Co^2+는 10 exp (-3)M, Mg^2+는 10 exp (-3)M일 때 GI 활성이 가장 높은 것으로 나타났다.