Recently, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) has been widely used in the areas of diagnosis, monitoring treatment efficiency, and prognosis for various heart diseases, especially heart failure (HF). In this paper, we try to estimate the prognostic significance of NT-proBNP as a risk evaluation marker in Non-ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) patients. We selected NSTEMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) primarily using a drug-eluting stent within 24 h after the onset of chest pain. We compared incidences of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) in two patient groups according to a high or low serum concentration of NT-proBNP, which was measured in the emergency room (ER). We intend to minimize selection bias selecting comparing groups, considering covariate of observed variables together using propensity score matching (PSM) and propensity score weighting (PSW) based on propensity score (PS) to control the difference in baseline characteristics between high- and low NT-proBNP groups. We found that as the log NT-proBNP value increases by 1 through a hazard function of COX’s analysis, the risk of MACE increases by 1.312 times. This result indicated that the NT-proBNP level on ER admission can be used as a significant prognostic indicator to estimate 1 year of MACE in NSTEMI patients who were treated with PCI within 24 h after the onset of chest pain.
This study conducted a social network analysis to investigate stem cell research which was actively being studied as an alternative for the treatment of intractable diseases due to infinite proliferation and differentiation ability. Papers was extracted from the PubMed database (DB) on the subject of ‘Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS) and Embryonic Stem Cells (ES)’, and ‘Adult Stem Cell (AS) and Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MS)’. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term was filtrated from each area. MeSH term of iPS and ES field was 148 (international), 71 (domestic), otherwise AS and MS were 89 (international), 78 (domestic). Keyword networks were visualized using degree centrality value and the core keywords compared. There was no difference in iPS and ES field compared with the domestic and international high-ranked keywords. Gene Therapy in the international level, Liver Regeneration and the Umbilical Cord in domestic were highly centered. In AS and MS fields, Neuron was high degree centrality both. Time lagged high ranked 30 keywords in slope were different, ‘Adipose Tissue’ increased both, otherwise ‘Stem Cell Transplantation’ did domestically. Although the absolute amounts of the research papers are different, research subjects had become similar to international trends following certain time lags. On the other hand research is conducted on the specific subjects in Korea. Keyword analysis will be useful method for searching a subject to actively being studied in stem cell research area.
The emergence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia (E.) coli is a major problem in pig farms. To tackle this issue, in July 2011, the Korean government banned the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion of animals in farms. Moreover, E. coli encoding the Stx2e gene cause edema disease which results in high mortality and morbidity in pig farms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli encoding the Stx2e gene isolated from weaned piglets with diarrhea before and after the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in Korea from 2007 to 2016. In this period, 479 E. coli isolates were obtained from weaned piglets with diarrhea, and of them, 144 E. coli isolates encoding the Stx2e gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction. The susceptibility of the E. coli isolates to antibiotics were tested using the standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The most frequently observed resistances in isolates obtained from weaned piglets in the last 10 years were to tetracycline (92.4%) and chloramphenicol (88.9%). The prevalence of resistance to colistin (3.1% to 16.5%) and tetracycline (86.2% to 97.5%) was also observed to have increased over this period. Additionally, multi-drug resistance was also found to have increased (87.7% to 97.5%) after the ban on AGPs. These findings provide useful data for designing prevention and treatment strategies for postweaning diarrhea and edema disease, and can be used in future studies on antimicrobial resistance in Korea.
Locomotion can be investigated using visual locomotion scoring or computer-assisted techniques such as force plates or pressure plates. Although visual locomotion scoring is inexpensive, it is subjective and depends on observers. Conversely, computer-assisted techniques are objective and more sensitive than visual assessment. Many studies of gait in large breed dogs have been conducted using these techniques; however, there have been few investigations of small to toy breed dogs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to conduct gait analysis in small to toy breed dogs and to suggest normal reference ranges for clinical application. Twenty healthy dogs with no lameness or orthopedic pain weighing from 2 kg to 12 kg were used. The dogs were divided into two groups according to their weight, after which gait analysis was conducted using a pressure plate. The pressure force ratio between the forelimb and hindlimb was significantly lower in group 2 (mean 4.2 kg) than group 1 (mean 10.4 kg), while the stance time ratio between the forelimb and hindlimb tended to increase in group 2, but there was no significant difference. Other numerical values in group 2 tended to decrease, with some significant differences being observed. Overall, the results suggest that there are different gait features in small to toy breed dogs when compared with middle and large breed dogs.
Skin barrier function can be assessed non-invasively, including by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, and sebum level. The aim of this study was to evaluate day-to-day variation in measurements of TEWL, skin hydration, and sebum level at various anatomic sites and the relationship between these parameters in normal dogs. Measurements were repeated five times on two separate days in five clinically normal Beagle dogs at seven anatomic sites, i.e., the left and right pinnae, left and right axillae, left and right groin areas, and ventrum. Coefficient of variation was used to show the variation in measurements. Correlations between each of the measurements were analyzed to determine the contribution of skin hydration and sebum level to TEWL. There was no variation in the measurements obtained according to time or anatomic site (P>.0.05). The coefficient of variation was highest for sebum level (209.0 ± 81.8%) followed in descending order by skin hydration (62.7 ± 34.5%) and TEWL (41.1 ± 6.9%). Of the seven anatomic sites sampled, the left and right pinnae showed the lowest variation in repeated measurements for TEWL (39.2%), skin hydration (29.6%), and sebum level (75.5%). There was no significant relationship between the results for each measurement (P>.0.05). Because of its relatively low variation on repeated measurement, TEWL might be the most useful way of evaluating skin condition in dogs.
It has been known that the ability of Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) to produce Stx2e in culture media plays a role in the diagnosis of edema disease and determination of subunit vaccine candidates in STEC isolates. To examine the efficiency of Stx2e production in several commercial media, a Stx2e-producing strain (KEFS1302) was grown in four different media: ISO-Sensitest broth (ISB), E. coli broth (ECB), trypticase soy broth (TSB), and Mueller Hinton broth (MHB), with or without mitomycin C at 37°C (250 rpm) for 6 h. Toxin production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the presence of mitomycin C, ECB was found to be the most suitable medium, reaching a production peak (OD600 = 1.2) at 1 h; Stx2e was mostly produced during the logarithmic phase (within 3 h). On the other hand, toxin production in ISB reached a peak at 3 h after incubation in the absence of mitomycin C. Stx2e was purified by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) using anion-exchange chromatography. The 43 kDa band of Stx2e was confirmed by western blot using the ECB supernatant. Our results showed that ECB and ISB media would be a suitable medium for mass production of Stx2e even if the toxin production is dependent on time.
The lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) show in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The three major micturition centers in brain are pontine micturition center (PMC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and medial preopticnucleus (MPA) regions. Previous study showed that c-Fos expression change was associated with LUTS. In present study, the effect of P. ginseng on c-Fos expression in PMC, vlPAG, and MPA regions in rat brain was tested. P. ginseng is the four year-old Korean ginseng. It was collected at the department of medicinal crop research (Eumsunggun, Chungbuk, Korea) in September 2010. The four groups (n = 6) are control group, BPH-induced group, BPHinduced and P. ginseng-treated group, and BPH-induced and finasteride-treated group. BPH in rats was induced by testosterone. After 4 weeks, all animals were sacrificed to evaluate c-Fos expression in PMC, vlPAG, and MPA regions in rat brain. The c-Fos expression was evaluated in the regions of rat brain by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Present results showed that c-Fos expressions in PMC, vl-PAG, and MPA regions in brain of rats in the BPH-induced group were higher compared to c-fos expression of the control group. The increased c-Fos expression in three regions (PMC, vlPAG, and MPA) were decreased by treatment with P. ginseng (200 mg/kg). These results suggest that P. ginseng has an inhibitory effect on the symptoms of BPH and is associated with regulation of c-Fos expression in the brain in a testosterone induced BPH rat model.
Ras activates a series of downstream effectors, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the Rac/Rho pathway after insulin stimulation. Mutations in Ras are found in approximately 30% of all human cancers and are critical factors in tumor initiation and maintenance. There are four Ras proteins with 80-90% amino acid sequence homology with major differences in the carboxyl termini. Ras proteins undergo farnesylation on their carboxyl termini catalyzed by the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (FTase), which facilitates localization of Ras proteins to the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Because inhibition of FTase would prevent Ras from processing into its active form, FTase is viewed as a potential therapeutic target. A variety of FTase inhibitors have showed great potency against tumor cells in preclinical studies. Although many farnesyltransferase inhibitors have been developed, their adverse effects on the mitogenic and metabolic actions of insulin are not completely understood. Here we show that YH3096, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, inhibits insulin-mediated DNA synthesis in HIRc-B cells without affecting c-Jun expression and membrane ruffling in HIRc-B cells. Moreover, YH3096 and its derivatives did not affect insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results provide a laboratory evaluation of the effects of Ras inhibitors on insulin functions.
A 2-year-old, spayed male Bengal cat was referred to our clinic due to a mass lesion on the upper lip, as well as lower lip swelling and redness. Furthermore, well-circumscribed, raised, pink lesions were found in the oral cavity. Complete blood counts (CBC) and serum biochemistry profiles revealed no remarkable findings. Bacterial and fungal cultures of the lesion in the oral cavity were negative. Fine needle aspiration of the lesions revealed numerous eosinophils. Based on both clinical examination and cytological evaluation, the cat was diagnosed with feline eosinophilic granuloma. As an initial treatment, oral prednisolone (PDS) with cyclosporine was administered. However, the cyclosporine caused the cat to vomit. The lesion was markedly improved after 2 weeks of PDS-only therapy; this was subsequently tapered for 2 months and discontinued. However, one month later, the lesion had relapsed. The cat was then treated for one month using tacrolimus with PDS, and the clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma gradually improved. The tacrolimus was gradually tapered for 1 month, and the PDS was gradually tapered for 4 months. There is no standard protocol for the investigation and treatment of feline eosinophilic granuloma. The cat in this report was administered immunosuppressive therapies to treat eosinophilic granuloma. This case report provides evidence the combination of PDS and tacrolimus is effective for reducing relapse in feline eosinophilic granuloma.
Infection with Helicobacter pylori leads to gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Moreover, when the gastric mucosa is exposed to H. pylori, gastric mucosal inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and reactive oxygen (ROS) species increase. Tribulus terrestris L. is an annual creeping herb of the family Zygophyllaceae. In this study, the effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruits extract (TTE) extract on H. pylori-infected human gastric epithelial cells was examined. Cell viability was determined by the tetrazolium salt reduction method using WST-1 according to the manufacturer's instructions. AGS cells were pretreated with TTE extract for 24 hrs followed by H. pylori infection for up to 24 hrs. IL-8 secretion in AGS cells was measured by ELISA. The extract yield of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris with 50% ethanol was 20.60%. We analyzed TFE composition by LC. The concentration of Protodioscin in TFE was 310 μg/mL. It was confirmed that exposure to 100 μg/mL of TTE had no significant effect on cell proliferation at the concentrations examined (12.5–200 μg/mL). It was therefore concluded that TTE at these concentrations had no cytotoxic effects on AGS cells and could be used in this study. Pretreatment of H. pylori-infected AGS cells with 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL of TTE for 24 hrs significantly decreased IL-8 production by 12.5%, 25%, 27.5% and 50%, respectively, compared to H. pylori-infected cells without TTE. In this study, we found that TTE inhibited H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion, thus augmenting their benefit in regard to protection of gastric epithelial cells. This study suggests that ingestion of these plant extracts could have therapeutic implications for patients with H. pylori induced gastritis and duodenal ulcer.