Selectins are cell membrane glycoproteins that recognize specific glycoconjugates expressed on the surface of cells. Then, selectins adjust cell-cell interactions that are important in inflammation, hemostasis and cancer metastasis. Selectins mediate leukocyte calls to move into the site of inflammation through interactions with activated endothelial cells or endogenous selectin ligands expressed in high endothelial venules. Types of selectins are divided into L-selectin, E-selectin and P-selectin, which are called to CD62L, CD62E, and CD62P, respectively. Each selectin is composed of four regions; the C-type lectin region of N-terminal, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) region, the intracellular C-terminal region, and the hydrophobic transmembrane region. They have similar structures but differ in their binding specificities and tissue distributions. The selectin family commonly recognizes the sialyl Lewis X (sLeX) on carbohydrate structures. Although biological ligands bound to each selectin are different from each other, they commonly bind to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) ligand. The PSGL-1 ligand is a glycoprotein promoting cell adhesion in inflammatory responses. If the absence of selectins and their ligands in humans and animals are, should lead to persistent infections and diseases. Selectin family must be considered as a key subject for drug discovery since they have various functions depending on the ligand which they bind to.
The number of cats requiring treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE) continues to increase, and the knowledge regarding its management is constantly evolving. The pathological lesions of HCM include hypertrophy of the left ventricle, which causes abnormalities in the relaxation function of the heart. This phenomenon increases the stiffness of the ventricular muscle, thereby reducing the ability of the left ventricle to fill with blood during diastole. This is accompanied by an increase in ventricular filling pressure and left atrial pressure. HCM in cats is characterized by concentric hypertrophy and atrial enlargement. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) also involves a narrowed left ventricular outflow tract, and in humans, it is generally perceived to be a more serious disease. However, unlike in humans, HCM and HOCM in cats do not result in significantly different survival times. Heart murmurs, gallop rhythms, arrhythmias, cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure (CHF), ATE, and cardiac sudden death (CSD) have all been associated with HCM. Although the presence of a heart murmur is a characteristic feature of heart disease, it may be a functional one, which is defined as “dynamic right ventricular outflow track obstruction” (DRVOTO) in cats. Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate the presence of HCM based on the existence of a heart murmur alone. ATE typically affects one or both hind limbs, resulting in acute paralysis and severe pain, consistent with lower motor neuron disease. The clot, which is formed in the left atrium of the heart, travels to an artery and becomes an ATE, which then blocks the blood flow and impairs circulation, causing infarction. Therefore, ATE in cats is a serious condition. This review describes the results of the latest research on HCM and ATE, the most common heart conditions in cats.
This study aimed to examine the effect of a mild elevation in serum cholesterol level in a porcine coronary overstretch restenosis model using a balloon angioplasty catheter or drug-eluting coronary stent. Pigs were divided into two groups and were fed a commercial normal diet (CND, n = 4) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n = 4) for 5 weeks. Coronary overstretch injury by balloon angioplasty or stent implantation was induced in the left anterior descending and left circumflex artery after 1 week of feeding. Histopathological analysis was performed at 4 weeks after coronary injury. During the experiment, the total cholesterol level in the HFD group increased by approximately 44.9% (from 65.9 ± 3.21 mg/dL at baseline to 95.5 ± 9.94 mg/dL at 5 weeks). The lumen area in the CND group was reduced in comparison with that in the HFD group after balloon angioplasty. After stent implantation, the injury score showed no significant difference. There were significant differences in the neointimal area (2.7 ± 0.33 mm2 in the CND group vs. 3.3 ± 0.34 mm2 in the HFD group, p<0.05), lumen area (2.6 ± 0.54 mm2 in the CND group vs. 2.0 ± 0.33 mm2 in the HFD group, p<0.05), and percent area stenosis (52.0 ± 7.96% in the CND group vs. 62.4 ± 5.15% in the HFD group, p<0.05). Body weight change was not different between the two groups. Increased serum cholesterol level activated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in the porcine coronary overstretch model.
The interaction between the cardiac and renal systems is important in determining blood pressure and blood volume, both of which play a role in the vasomotor system and fluid balance. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) occurs as a result of a disparity in correlation between the two. In veterinary medicine, cardiovascular-renal axis disorder (CvRD) lacks pathologically and etiologically specific data, but shares common pathophysiological patterns with CRS and CvRD in humans.
CvRD is structural or functional damage caused by diseases of the heart or kidneys, or toxins or drugs, resulting in the disruption of normal interactions between these organs and the destruction of one or both organs. The aim of this study is to compare the long-term changes in various indicators, including hypertension, proteinuria and echocardiographic parameters, before and after administration of telmisartan in cats with CvRD. This study found a clear gradual decrease in Urine protein to creatinine (UP/C) ratio and left atrium (LA) diameter in cats with CvRD, after administration of telmisartan. UP/C ratio (p<0.001) was found to decrease significantly over time, after administration of telmisartan. UP/C ratio before telmisartan administration was 0.39 ± 0.255 (Day 0) and 0.29 ± 0.056 on day 30 (Day 30), 0.28 ± 0.040 on day 60 (Day 60), and 0.20 ± 0.128 on day 90 (Day 90) after administration, respectively. LA diameter before telmisartan administration was 17.9 mm ± 1.6 before telmisartan administration (Day 0) and 17.4 mm ± 1.8 on day 30 (Day 30), 16.1 mm ± 1.6 on day 60 (Day 60), and 15.7 mm ± 1.7 on day 90 (Day 90) after administration, respectively. Oral administration of telmisartan to cats with CvRD is effective in improving proteinuria and LA diameter, which is a positive aspect of long-term survival in cats with CvRD.
The objective of measurement of bio-signals in measurement uncertainty is not to determine the true value as closely as possible, but to determine a measured value and to assign the interval of the value. The measurement uncertainty is estimated by type A and B evaluations, depending on whether they are evaluated by statistics or the mathematical probability theory. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is used often for early detection of inherent risk relevant to neurosurgical procedures leading to permanent neurological injury, while it is still potentially reversible. In this study, we evaluated the uncertainties in somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), which are used for monitoring sensory neural pathways. In a 45-year-old man who underwent cervical laminectomy, SSEPs were monitored using the ISIS IOM SYSTEM (Inomed, Emendingen, Germany) to evaluate the uncertainties. Expanded uncertainty were 0.88 mV and 1.22 ms, for amplitude and latency, respectively. Measured values and corresponding uncertainties of amplitude and latency were 2.78 ± 0.88 mV and 24.02 ± 1.22 ms, respectively. The expanded uncertainty (0.88 mV) of the amplitude was approximately 30% of the mean value (2.78 mV). A reasonable explanation for this would be the effects of variables such as electromagnetic waves (diathermy and warming blankets), temperature, blood pressure, sex and body mass index on SSEPs. Careful attention is required in interpreting SSEPs.
Persistent left cranial vena cava (PLCVC) is a remnant vessel connected with the coronary sinus and draining into the right atrium. A 3-month-old intact male Bichon Frise was evaluated for the presence of a mechanical murmur auscultation in the local animal hospital. No significant clinical signs were present on physical examination except mechanical murmur. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was diagnosed in the imaging procedure. During the left thoracotomy, PLCVC was found. The vascular malformation made the surgical process difficult by hiding PDA from the left thoracotomy surgical view. PLCVC and the vagus nerve was carefully dissected and lifted to secure a clear surgical view of PDA. The ductus arteriosus was ligated. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed postoperatively. On CTA, left brachiocephalic vein retaining connection with the coronary sinus draining into the right atrium was observed. CTA is highly recommended for dogs with PDA to provide better postoperative results.
Various viral and bacterial pathogens interact with environmental factors to cause diarrhea in piglets. Enterococcus spp. are Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of several animal species, including pigs. Enterococcus spp. have been reported to infect several animal species as a pathogen. However, gastrointestinal infection by Enterococcus hirae is rare in pigs; only a few cases have been reported worldwide. Four piglets with diarrhea were examined in the diagnostic laboratory of Optipharm Inc. (Cheongju, Korea). During the initial post-mortem examination, no disease lesions were observed. Upon microscopic examination, we found numerous Gram-positive cocci that were adhered to epithelial villi in the jejunum and ileum. However, the villi did not exhibit significant structural damage. Cultured bacteria were identified as E. hirae using the VITEK 2 system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using PCR, we also confirmed that viruses and protozoa that can potentially infect piglet intestines were absent. In antibiotic susceptibility test, the bacteria were resistant to most types of antibiotics. This study presents rare cases of E. hirae infection of the piglet small intestine, which can occur in association with diarrhea possibly by the continuous use of antibiotics.
A 7-year-old, intact, female Siberian husky was presented to the Veterinary Medical Center of Chungbuk National University because of vomiting and diarrhea after a fight with a cohabiting dog. Physical examination, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and laboratory examination were performed. The dog was diagnosed with pyometra and 10% dehydration. On electrolyte, Na and Cl ion concentration were lower than normal values and Ca ion concentration was slightly lower than normal values. On blood chemistry, blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase value were extremely higher than normal values. Neutrophil was observed as hypersegmentation. On ultrasonography, enlarged uterine body was observed. Uterus was enlarged and filled with echogenic fluid that is seemed to be pus. Uterine horn was rubbing the bladder. In bacterial culture, the colony morphology was smooth, mucoid, and hemolytic. Also, on molecular diagnosis test, both samples from uterine and abdominal fluid were confirmed to be E. coli. This case describes that uterine pus was leakage to abdominal cavity through oviduct, and pus leakage from uterus may be cause septic peritonitis and death. Also, this case must be considered that physical event such as fight against cohabiting dog, strenuous exercise and kiss-off can cause uterine rupture or pus leakage through oviduct from uterus in dog with pyometra.