Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics are intensively used in human and animal species. These probiotic properties of LABs were variable according to bacterial strain and species. However, there was limited information on probiotic properties of monkey origin LABs. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of monkey and human origin LABs against monkey origin enteric bacteria by the agar disc diffusion test and broth culture inhibition assay. All LABs represented enough tolerance to pepsin (0.3%) and bile acid (pH = 2). To 50% of Clostridium perfringens and 20% of Escherichia coli, monkey origin LABs showed statistically higher antibacterial activity compared to human origin LABs (p < 0.05). Also, distinct antibacterial activity was verified among some bacteria species and strains. Higher antibacterial activity against enteric bacteria except for C. perfringens was verified in Lactobacillus johnsonii strains compared to Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius. Statistically different antibacterial activity against C. perfringens was verified among strains within L. reuteri and L. johnsonii. In conclusion, we prove the higher probiotic properties of monkey origin LABs against homogenous enteric bacteria although humans and monkeys were phylogenetically similar species. For non-human primates, homogenous LABs should be used as probiotics, not human origin LABs. Furthermore, it was confirmed among monkey origin LABs, L. johnsonii showed a high antibacterial activity on various enteric pathogenic bacteria and was an appropriate lactic acid strain for inhibiting C. perfringens.
This case report describes satisfactory correction of deep and large canine corneal ulcerations by application of bidirectional corneo-conjunctival transposition (CCT). A 12-year-old spayed female Maltese dog with a large corneal descemetocele, perforation, and blepharospasm of the right eye was referred to Chungbuk National University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. More than half of the thickness of the cornea was damaged, and the ulcer was progressive. On ophthalmic examination, menace response and dazzle reflex were absent. No corneal melting was observed. As the patient had large and deep corneal ulcers, traditional one-sided CCT was not sufficient to cover the wound lesion. To increase corneal transparency after recovery, we decided to perform bidirectional CCT from 12 o’ clock on the dorsal side to 7 o’ clock on the ventral side. The dog was medicated with topical eye drops, ofloxacin, atropine, and moxifloxacin before surgery. Debridement with a diamond burr was then performed around the descemetocele. Five weeks after surgery, the dazzle reflex was restored as the blood vessel receded from the cornea to the conjunctiva. Eight weeks after surgery, corneal transparency and corneal stability were gradually restored, but not completely. Bidirectional CCT provides structural support and helps corneal wound healing in large canine corneal ulceration.