Exposure to house dust mites is closely connected with allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus) act as allergens even after their death. Therefore, repelling the house dust mites is more effective method than killing them. Many chemical agents have been used in killing house dust mite. However, it is usually reported that these chemical agents (acaricides) exhibit adverse effects and toxicity toward animals and human. For these reasons, we carried out the experiments for measuring the repellent activity of Mate tea and Jasmine tea against house dust mites in this experiment. In order to determine the concentration having the most effective repellent effect of Mate and Jasmine tea, house dust mites (D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus) were exposed at different concentrations (0, 0.015625, 0.03125, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mg/40 μL) of Mate tea and Jasmine tea extracts, respectively, for different hours (0.5, 1, 2, 3 hours). The most effective repellent effect (%) against house dust mite in 0.25 mg/40 μL of Mate tea for 2 hours was 73.5%, Jasmine Petal tea in 0.0625 mg/40 μL for 1 hour was 84.1% and Pearl Jasmine tea in 0.125 mg/40 μL for 0.5 hour was 82.8%. These results suggest that Mate tea and Jasmine tea extracts have potential effect to repel the house dust mites (D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus)
Carrier testing for autosomal recessive hereditary disorders in the elite sire population has great significance for the domestic animal breeding. Because the recessive allele embedded in carriers without clinical signs may be passed to the next generation and rapidly spread throughout the population. The occurrences of various autosomal recessive hereditary disorders have been reported, and several causative mutations were elucidated in cattle. However, there is no report for the hereditary disorders in Korean cattle (Hanwoo) although Hanwoo is the indigenous purebred in Korea and have been improved by the national breeding programs in the last 30 years. Here, we investigated the presence of carrier for the following hereditary disorders in the Korean proven bulls (n=78; 42 family) using DNA based analysis: Chediak–Higashi syndrome, spherocytosis, claudin-16 deficiency, factor XI deficiency. The causative genes for these diseases (lysosomal trafficking regulator, solute carrier family 4 member 1, Claudin-16 and coagulation factor XI, respectively) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. As a results, there was no carrier individual, and all animals were normal. Although the recessive alleles for four disorders were not identified in this study, further investigation for other hereditary disorders still remains to remove deleterious factors in the genetic improvement of Korean cattle.
Previous studies have investigated the potential relationship between promoter polymorphism (-308, G/ A) of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and various autoimmune diseases. However, results from published data were inconclusive. To verify relationship between TNF-α polymorphism (-308, G/A) and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo, celiac disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, we have performed a metaanalysis with all relevant articles before October 2016. The electronic search of PubMed, google, and Embase databases was performed to identify eligible studies investigating the relationship of TNF-α polymorphism with autoimmune diseases including vitiligo, celiac disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Genotype frequency data of TNF-α polymorphism (-308, G/A) were extracted and the meta analysis was performed by Comprehensive meta-analysis program with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Genotype models were applied with dominant and recessive models and allele model analyzed. The final analysis included 37 publication papers with a total of 6,102 autoimmune disease patients and 6,987 control subjects. In result, a statistical significant correlation between TNF-α polymorphism (-308, G/A) and susceptibility to autoimmune disease was not detected in our meta-analysis (p>0.05 in all models). Our results suggest that the TNF-α polymorphism might not be related to the development of autoimmune disease. If further results in larger studies would be accumulated in the future, this relationship would be clarified.
Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a brain specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme, is characterized by its consistent occurrence in the cytoplasm of mature neurons. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of NSE in the developing tongue of Korean native goats. The tongues of the fetuses were removed from 2- to 4-year-old female Korean native goats by caesarean section performed under general anesthesia. The expression of NSE in the developing tongue of goat fetuses (60, 90, 120, and 150 days) was studied using immunohistochemistry. In 60-day-old fetuses, NSE-immunoreactivity (IR) exhibited weak appearance in lamina propria of the basal portion and the apical epithelia of the tongue. In 90-day-old fetuses, NSE-nerve fibers were extended in the core part of connective tissue, and primordia of the taste buds was moderately positive. In 120-day-old fetuses, NSE-IR was strongly expressed in taste buds and gustatory nerve fibers. In neonates, the taste buds of vallate papillae were strongly positive for NSE, and development of nerve fibers was synapsed with connective tissue of well innervated taste buds. These results indicate that NSE expressions were associated with the sign of nerve innervation in prenatal development of goat tongues and NSE may be a useful neuronal marker to understand the development of gustatory nerve innervations.
Aging is a growing concern of age-associated aberrations in immune system or immunosenescence. Probiotics contain not only these general health advantages but also other the regulation of host immune function. Among those probiotics, the immunomodulatory effects of Weissella cibaria JW15 (JW15) strain has already been reported in our previous studies. The objective of this study is to assess improved immunity of JW15 strain in aged mice. In experiment, mice were divided into five groups. Twenty eight–month-old C57BL/6J mice were given a daily dose of 1×109 CFU/ mouse (JW15-H group) and 1×108 CFU/mouse (JW15- L group) of viable JW15. The young mice group (YM) and old mice group (OM) were given PBS. After four weeks of administration, mice were euthanized. Mice blood was collected and analyzed for complete blood cell count (CBC). Then, mice spleen was weighed and analyzed for splenocyte. Finally, we measured the concentration of cytokine secreted by splenocyte and serum. The results showed splenocyte proliferation of JW15-L group by the addition of LPS and concanavalin A was significantly higher than that of OM group. Splenocyte TNF-α production was significantly increased by JW15 intake. In particular, splenocyte TNF-α production of JW15-L group by the addition of LPS (5 μg/mL) was significantly greater than that other group. Splenocyte IL-6 production was also the highest in JW15-L group. Serum IFN-γ production of JW15-L (59.13 ± 16.13 pg/mL) group was significantly higher than that of OM group (39.71 ± 2.51 pg/ mL). When compared to the OM group (32.22 ± 1.92 pg/mL), Serum TNF-α production was significantly increased by JW15-H intake (69.01± 26.51 pg/mL). In conclusion, JW15 enhanced immunomodulative effects. In particular, the effect was significantly excellent in JW15-L group (1 × 108 CFU/mouse). Therefore, Weissella cibaria JW15 would be suitable for consideration as a helpful functional food for companion animals and humans.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that deprives the patient of memory, is associated mainly with extracellular senile plaque induced by the accumulation of amyloid β protein (Aβ). Silybum marianum (Asteraceae; SM) is a medicinal plant that has long been used in traditional medicine as a hepatoprotective remedy owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study examined the methanol extract of the aerial parts of SM for neuroprotection against Aβ (25-35)-induced neuronal death in cultured rat cortical neurons to investigate a possible therapeutic role of SM in AD. The primary cortical neuron cultures were prepared using embryonic day 15 to 16 SD rat fetuses. Cultured cortical neurons exposed to 10 μM Aβ (25-35) for 36 h underwent neuronal cell death. At 10 and 50 μg/mL, SM prevented Aβ (25-35)-induced neuronal cell death and apoptosis in cultured cortical neurons. Furthermore, SM inhibited the Aβ (25-35)-induced decrease in anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and the increase in the proapoptotic proteins, Bax and active caspase-3. Cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1 mM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) for 14 h induced neuronal cell death. SM (10 and 50 μg/mL) prevented NMDA-induced neuronal cell death. These results suggest that SM inhibited Aβ (25-35)-induced neuronal apoptotic death via inhibition of NMDA receptor activation and that SM has a possible therapeutic role in preventing the progression of neurodegeneration in AD.
This report describes the different responses to dapsone treatment in two cases of sterile nodular panniculitis (SNP). Two dogs were presented with ulcerative skin lesions, painful and erythematous papules, and nodules. History and physical examination revealed systemic signs such as pyrexia, lethargy, depression, and anorexia, in addition to ulcerated and ruptured nodules on the skin. The dermatological diagnostics included clear taping, trichogram, skin scraping, impression smears, fungal and bacterial cultures, and histopathology and special stainings of multiple punch biopsies obtained from the skin lesions. Based on the clinical and histopathologic findings, the absence of microbiological infection, and the positive response to immunosuppressive therapy, both the dogs were diagnosed with SNP. Although both dogs had been treated with various immunosuppressive drugs including prednisolone, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and triamcinolone, therapy was switched to dapsone due to recurrent dermatological signs and presumed steroidinduced hepatotoxicity. The clinical responses to dapsone were opposite in the two cases. In the first case, combination therapy with prednisolone and cyclosporine was effective in attenuating ulcerative lesions, while dapsone alone did not control the clinical signs. In contrast, in the second case, the therapeutic response to the common immunomodulatory drugs such as prednisolone, triamcinolone, and azathioprine was inadequate. Interestingly, dapsone alone was effective in controlling the clinical signs without causing undue side effects. Although the usefulness of dapsone for the treatment of canine SNP is unknown, it may be considered in mild to moderate cases of SNP when the use of steroids is not recommended due to its low efficacy or side effects.
Hematometra is defined as the accumulation of blood and blood clots in the uterus. An 8-month-old, intact female Poongsan dog presented with continuous severe hemorrhagic vulvar discharge and anemia. The initial diagnostic evaluation included abdominal ultrasonography, radiography, and physical and laboratory examinations. The electrolyte levels were low: Na ion levels were 128 mmol/L (reference range, 141 - 152 mmol/L), and Cl ion levels were 99 mmol/ L (reference range, 105 - 115 mmol/L). At presentation, the white blood cell count was 60.19 × 103/μL (reference range, 5.05 – 16.76 × 103/μL), packed cell volume was 11.8% (reference range, 37.3% - 61.7%), hemoglobin levels were 4.6 g/ dl (reference range, 13.1 - 20.5 g/dl), and platelet count was 48 × 103/μL (reference range, 148 - 484 × 103/μL). Based on the results of the complete blood count, the dog was given lactated Ringer’s solution and a whole blood transfusion. On abdominal ultrasonography, the left uterine horn was enlarged and filled with echogenic fluid. On laparotomy, the uterus was enlarged and showed an accumulation of blood and blood clots. The incised uterine horn revealed that the endometrium was filled with blood and blood clots and had a cystic appearance. Additionally, thick and yellowish pus had accumulated in the uterine cavity. Gross findings revealed a definitive diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia- pyometra complex with severe hemorrhage, termed hematometra. This case was the first report of severe hematometra in a young Poongsan dog.
The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ancient house-keeping enzymes that catalyze the ligation of tRNAs to their cognate amino acids in the first step of protein synthesis. During the evolution of higher eukaryotes, cytoplasmic ARSs have undergone significant changes including the addition of new domains that are not part of the enzymatic core. These additional regions have been found to be associated with a broad range of biological functions beyond protein synthesis. The non-translational functions of ARSs appear to be regulated by their presence within a cytoplasmic multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC), which is assembled through the appended domains. We recently reported that the MSC member glutamylprolyl- tRNA synthetase (EPRS) promotes antiviral gene expression through its infection-specific phosphorylation and release from the MSC. Here, we conducted transcriptome analysis of influenza A virusinfected cells. We particularly focused on the analysis of chemokine-related gene expression, in combination with chemokine array analysis against virus infection. Moreover, the correlation between chemokine expression pattern and EPRS function in response to different stimuli was assessed. The results showed that viral infection increases interferon-response and pro-inflammatory chemokine expression. In contrast, the level of chemokine expression was suppressed in interferon-γ treated cells. Thus, these results further demonstrate the previously reported stimulus-specific EPRS functions in immune responses.