The purpose of this study was to investigate diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver damage in zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae were divided into five groups after seventy-two hours fertilization: group 1 (G1) as control, group 2 (G2) as probe control, groups 3, 4, and 5 (G3, G4, and G5) as DEN treated at doses of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. At twenty-two hours after DEN treatment, groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were treated with ApoFlamma H 675 at a dose of 100 μM/zebrafish. They were examined by fluorescence stereomicroscope at twenty-four hours after DEN treatment. After fixation, the zebrafish were processed, embedded, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Fluorescence intensity of the livers of G3, G4, and G5 was significantly increased compared with those of G1 (p<0.01). Furthermore, fluorescence intensity of the livers of G3 and G5 was significantly increased compared with those of G2 (p<0.05 and p<0.01). HE staining showed cell deaths in the livers of DEN-treated zebrafish and TUNEL staining confirmed cell death in the same location. Taken together, in vivo fluorescence bioimaging detected cell death in the liver of DEN-treated zebrafish. This outcome was confirmed with histopathological examination. The results of this study provide confidence for using zebrafish as a liver carcinogenesis model.
Sepsis is one of the systemic inflammatory responses, and it can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mechanical ventilation (MV) is one of the best treatments in patients with sepsis related to ARDS. However, mechanical ventilation itself can cause lung injury through various mechanisms. In this study, we applied mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis with subsequent injurious ventilation to determine if sepsis could affect the development of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To evaluate lung injury caused by sepsis, mild, moderate, and severe CLPs were induced. To evaluate lung injury caused by MV with or without sepsis, tidal volume (7 mL/kg, 10 mL/kg, or 24 mL/kg) was maintained for 3 h with or without septic insult (mild sepsis for 72 h). Lung compliance was then determined and biochemical evaluations were performed. Results showed that lung compliance was lower in the severe sepsis group compared to that in the mild or moderate sepsis group. MV alone decreased lung compliance in a tidal volume dependent manner. Both CLP and VILI groups showed significant decrease in lung compliance and increase in total cell count upon bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results confirm that ventilation can affect lung injury in mouse sepsis model.
This study compares the differences in the gastrointestinal transit time between the conventional capsule endoscope and a minimized capsule endoscope model in normal dogs to verify whether the minimization of capsule endoscope can help relief retention in the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the pyloric passage. Three male beagles were used as the experimental group for which the minimized capsule endoscope model was orally administered and the control group consisted of three beagle dogs for which the conventional capsule endoscope was orally administered. Nine experiments were conducted with three experiments for each dog in each group. The results showed a significant difference in the gastric transit time (GTT) by the minimization of the capsule endoscope between the two groups (control group: 123.3 ± 80 min, experimental group: 63.3 ± 40.9 min, p=0.019). In contrast, the difference in the small bowel transit time (SBTT) by the minimization of the capsule endoscope between the two groups (control group: 86.6 ± 58.9 min, experimental group: 80 ± 33.5 min, p=0.863) was not significant. In this study, the capsule endoscopes reached the large intestine without retention in the small intestine in all subjects. The significant difference in the GTT between the control group using the conventional capsule endoscope and the experimental group using the minimized capsule endoscope model suggests that the smaller size of the capsule endoscope is helpful in resolving retention in the gastrointestinal tract, thus shorting the GTT.
An 8-year-old castrated male Maltese dog (patient) was referred to our institute with refractory canine babesiosis. The patient had previously responded to conventional treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin; however, anemia had recurred at six weeks after treatment withdrawal. No effect was observed on the administration of the same medication along with diminazene aceturate. On blood analysis, mild anemia was identified, with the absolute reticulocyte count indicating a markedly regenerative state. On Diff-Quik-stained peripheral blood film examination, the parasitic protozoan Babesia gibsoni was observed, and based on further laboratory examinations, a relapse of babesiosis was confirmed. Based on a previous study of drug-resistant variants of B. gibsoni and therapeutic trials, the treatment was then changed to a combination therapy of clindamycin, doxycycline, and metronidazole. Subsequently, the patient’s condition improved rapidly — B. gibsoni was not detected in the blood film and the PCR analysis for it was negative. This treatment was discontinued at six weeks after treatment initiation; however, at seven weeks after the treatment withdrawal, another relapse of babesiosis was confirmed and treatment was restarted with the same protocol. This treatment was effective again and lasted for 12 weeks. However, anemia recurred again at five weeks after withdrawal of the previous treatment and was corrected by restarting the same treatment protocol. This third treatment continued for 24 weeks and was finally stopped at the request of the client. The patient has reportedly been doing well with no manifestation of clinical signs and symptoms. This case report demonstrates that the clindamycin- doxycycline-metronidazole combination therapy against atovaquone and azithromycin-resistant B. gibsoni may be effective in improving the clinical manifestation of symptoms of canine babesiosis and this therapy may be an alternative treatment strategy.