This study developed and evaluated a load cell-based automatic weighing system for the automated harvesting of laver (Porphyra tenera) in seaweed aquaculture. The current manual harvesting process was compared with the load cell-based automated system, and quantitative measurements of time, distance, and weight were conducted. The results demonstrated that the load cell-based system reduced the unloading time and increased the throughput compared to the manual method. In addition, statistical analysis confirmed that there was no significant difference from the mean in the weight measurement obtained using the load cell-based system. Based on these findings, the load cell-based automatic weighing system holds potential for efficient production and transactions in laver cultivation, contributing to cost reduction and improving the quality of life for aquaculture workers.
Sensory evaluation of shucking pressure, pressure holding time, seeding method, difference in full shucking rate in the aquaculture area and shucking oyster was performed using an ultra-high pressure oyster shucking machine. The reaching time for each target pressure is 2.2-2.4 MPa/sec in the range of 180 MPa to 240 MPa. had a rate of pressure rise. There was a difference of 0.5-1.7℃ in the range of 24-27℃ in the seawater temperature before and after the pressure treatment inside the pressure vessel, but there was no specific increase or decrease in seawater temperature. When only the shucking pressure is increased without the pressure holding time, the critical shucking pressure at which the oyster shell is opened and the flesh is peeled in the range of 200 to 220 MPa. When the critical shucking pressure is reached, the oyster sample in the closed vessel is expected to be shucked by about 40%. If there is no pressure holding time when judged only by full shucking, an increase in pressure of about 1.5 MPa is required to further shuck 3% of the oyster population. The oyster samples cultivated in the south coast of Korea were subject to full shucking under the conditions of 220 MPa shucking pressure and two minutes (120 seconds) of pressure holding time, and the difference in the pressure of the oysters according to the oyster seeding method and the farming area was minute. Finally, the condition of 220 MPa of shucking pressure and three minutes of pressure holding time was the best at 1.52 when the result of the sensory evaluation performed manually was set to 1.0. Next was 1.4 under the conditions of 220 MPa of shucking pressure and one minute of pressure holding time (60 seconds), and 1.3 under the condition of 220 MPa and two minutes of pressure holding time (120 seconds). Therefore, it is considered that the most desirable shucking conditions, considering the efficiency and sensory evaluation results, are the conditions of 220 MPa shucking pressure and two to three minutes of pressure holding time.
In the anchovy boat seine fishing boat, it is necessary to select other aquatic organisms other than live anchovies, which are the target species of catch. By making a rotating roller sorter using hydraulic pressure, the anchovy sorting amount was compared and the sorting accuracy of the rotary roller sorter, and the discharge speed of butter fish and jerry fish according to the number of roller revolutions were analyzed. The rotating roller sorter increases the weight of the sorted raw anchovy by 54%, 74% and 91.5% compared to the round bar fixed type, so it can reduce the required time by an average of 73.2%. As a result of converting the sorting accuracy to the weight of pure anchovies excluding the catch weight, the round bar fixed type was 89%; however, the average of the rotating roller sorter was 97.7%. Thus, the sorting accuracy of the rotary roller sorter was further improved by about 8.7%. The roller speed moved 7% at 300 rpm, 7.5% at 600 rpm, and 16% at 900 rpm, so butter fish were discharged overboard 10% faster than jelly fish on average. In addition, the average feed speed of butter fish and jelly fish is 1,400 mm/s when the roller rotation speed is 300 rpm, 1,480 mm/s at 600 rpm, and 1,850 mm/s at 900 rpm. A Φ58 mm roller rotates once it moved about 1.23 mm. In the future, a follow-up study of quantitative evaluation is needed targeting more non-target fish species of anchovy boat seine.
By applying super-high pressure (150-250 MPa) to a sealed pressure vessel, it is possible to make oyster shucking machine that automatically opens two-sheet shellfish or oysters. Possibility of developing a shucking machine was confirmed by identifying the working pressure for meat of oysters produced in the southern coast and conducting sensory evaluation of meat oysters. As a result of confirming the shucked oysters under super-high pressure of 150 MPa in the pressure vessel, the number of type A with separated shells and well-separated meat was 22 and type B with both shells and internal meat and shells not separated. For the oysters that were treated at 175 MPa, there were 58 type As with shell separated and meat well separated and 42 type Bs without oyster shells and insides. When looking at the oysters shucked at 200 MPa in the pressure vessel, the number of type A was 86 and type B was 14 accounting for 86% of oysters with good marketability. As a result of shucking oysters by applying 250 MPa, 96% type A oysters and 4% type B oysters were obtained from the total specimen. The total specimen oyster weight used in the conducted experiment was 6 kg, the average oyster shell weight was 3.99 kg and the average oyster meat weight was 1.25 kg. Therefore, the fatness of oyster meat, which measures the added value of oysters, is 20.8%. Sensory evaluation was conducted on thinned oysters by hand and type A oysters shelled by machine with an operating pressure of 200 MPa. The hand-worked oyster sample scored 4.7 points only in salty taste, and scored 5.0 or higher in color, shape, smell, fishy taste, texture and preference.
We analyzed the cutting mechanism of laver harvesting machine in the sea area near Gooam Port in Goheung, Jeollanam-do, and investigated the change and efficiency of laver collecting operation in the working ship. The laver working ship slides uniformly from the bow to the upper part of the laver collecting machine on the deck and cuts the wet laver attached to the bottom of the net at the blade of the havesting machine. The laver farming net, which was loaded with laver turrets on the deck by gravity and collected primitives, consisted of a ship structure that led to the stern side and into the sea. The working ship operation is in harvesting process while driving in a S-shape that is separated by one space to efficiently collect the laver net. During laver working ship operation, the speed was 0.51 m/s in the access stage, 0.56 m/s in the havesting stage, and 0.52 m/s in the exit stage. Considering the cutting edge life and production efficiency of the laver harvesting machine, it is appropriate to harvest 1.15 to 1.26 kg/rpm by operating at a rotational speed of about 700 to 800 rpm rather than forcibly harvesting the product at high speed. On the deck of the working ship, 959.7 kg of starboard and 1048.7 kg of center were 964.7 kg of port side. Based on the starboard, 9.3% of the central part and 0.5% of the port side appeared. The reason for this was due to the difference in harvest time according to the turning direction of the working ship.
In this study, an automatic system for improving the working environment and increasing production efficiency of a laver aquaculture industry in Korea was developed by combining a hydraulic control system and a load cell in a current landing work of the laver. The improved gathering laver system allowed the automatic gathering process of the laver in the sea with the hydraulic control system connected to a cutting machine of the laver on the operating ship, which has been used for gathering the laver semi-automatically in a form of the traditional farming method. The transporting process of the laver from an operating ship to the land was improved as follows. A frame installed on the operating ship and the bag nets were designed and made to hold about 1,000 kg of the laver inside. The bag nets contain the laver on the improved operating ship were tied in knots and hooked on a crane using a load cell. The weight is measured immediately by lifting the bag nets through the load cell system. Weight information is communicated to the fishermen and successful bidders through the application. The advantages of the improved system can help fishermen to fish by improving their working environment and increasing production efficiency. The field survey to improve the landing operation of the laver aquaculture was conducted in Gangjin, Goheung, Shinan, Wando, Jindo, and Haenam in South Jeonnam Province. A total of 10 sites including Gunsan in Jeonbuk Province, Daebu Island in Ansan City, Jebu Island in Hwaseong City in Gyeonggi Province, and Seocheon in Chungnam Province were searched to collect data. Prototypes of the system were tested at the auction house of laver located in Goheung, where laver collection using hydraulic control and landing using road cell could be improved.
오탁방지막이 바닷물 속에 설치되어 있을 때 조류와 파도가 변할 때 움직임과 앵커 파주력을 초과하는 유체력이 작용할 경우의 이동 메카니즘을 질량-스프링법으로 해석하였다. 설치 위치는 전남 진도군 임회면 굴포리 동령개 포구 해역이다. 앵커의 파주력을 초과하는 장력은 0.05 m/s에서는 318초 후에 도달하였고, 0.15 m/s에서는 77초, 0.25 m/s에서는 43초, 0.3 m/s에서는 37초 후에 앵커가 움직이기 시작하여, 조류 속도가 0.01 m/s로 증가함에 따라서 평균 11.2 초 정도, 앵커 이동시작 시간이 단축되고 있었다. 조류만 작용할 때와 파랑이 추가될 때의 차이점은 유속이 느릴 경우, 앵커의 이동이 시작되는 시간의 차이가 7.6 % 정도 발생하였으나, 유속이 빠른 경우는 4.3 %미만으로 큰 차이가 없이 앵커 이동이 시작되는 것을 알 수 있었다. 조류 속도가 0.13 m/s를 초과하고 파도의 방향이 일치하면 주변의 해저 구조물과의 충돌로 인해 오탁방지막 성능이 정상적으로 작동하지 않을 수 있으니, 오탁방지막을 바다에 설치할 때 해수의 흐름 상황 등을 질량-스프링 방법으로 면밀하게 검토해야 한다.