This study describes the effects of palm oil biodiesel (PD) blended with diesel on the combustion performance, emission characteristics and soot morphology in a 4-cylinder CRDI diesel engine. 5 kinds of fuels are used with blending as diesel/biodiesel volume ratio 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 100%. The engine is operated under idle speed, 750rpm and load conditions of the engine are 0 Nm and 40Nm. The Coefficient of Variation(COV) of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure(IMEP) shows that the engine operates very steadily in the idle state. But fuel consumption is increased. And Emission results show that the oxygen in biodiesel has a great influence on the production of exhaust emissions. The nitrogen oxides(NOx) is decreased because of high viscosity and low heating values of biodiesel at low blend ratio. But NOx and Carbon monoxide(CO) are increased above a certain blend ratio. Particulate matter(PM) and Hydrocarbons(HC) is decreased according to increase of blend ratio. The size of soot is decreased and the morphology of soot is developed to cluster with increasing blend ratio.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a source of air pollution and are harmful to both human health and the environment. In this study, we fabricated polyurethane/rare earth (PU/RE) composite nanofibrous membranes via electrospinning with the aim of removing VOCs from air. The morphological structure of PU/RE nanofibrous mats were investigated using FE-SEM, EDX, and XRD experimental analyses. A certain amount of RE (up to 50 wt% compared to PU pellets) particles could be loaded on/into PU fibers. The PU nanofiber containing 50 wt% RE powder had the smallest fiber diameter of 356 nm; it also showed the highest VOCs absorption capacity compared with other composite membranes, having an absorption capacity about 3 times greater than pure PU nanofibers. In addition, all of the PU/RE nanofibrous membranes readily absorbed styrene the most, followed by xylene, toluene, benzene and chloroform. Therefore, the PU/RE nanofibrous membrane can play an important role in removing VOCs from the air, and its development prospects are impressive because they are emerging materials.
전통적인 화석 에너지 자원의 고갈과 환경오염 악화 등의 관점에서 볼 때 에너지 절약 및 배출가스의 저감은 동시에 해결해야 되는 문제로 대두되고 있다. 바이오연료는 대체연료의 하나로서 이러한 문제들을 효과적으로 해소할 수 있는 대안으로 떠오르고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 커먼레일 터보과급디젤기관에서 카놀라유 바이오디젤연료의 적용효과를 알아보기 위하여 실험적으로 고찰하였다. 실험에 사용된 연료는 ULSD(초저황 디젤유), BD20(체적비로 20%인 카놀라유와 80% 디젤유 혼합) 및 PCO(순수한 카놀라유)를 사용하였다. 카놀라유 바이오디젤연료의 혼합율이 증가함에 따라 입자상물질(PM)과 일산화탄소 (CO)는 크게 감소하였으며, 질소산화물(NOx)은 약간 증가하는 현상을 보였다.
This study describes the effects of polyurethane/loess powder (PU/LP) nanofiber thin films composite produced from electrospun for absorption volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air. Environmental issue has become a focus with improving people's living quality. The VOCs are one of the factors that affect the environmental safety. So, in order to improve the environment and safety for people, many air cleaning techniques have been investigated. One of the methods is nanofiber filtration technology. In this study, the PU nanofiber thin film has been studied that it has the adsorption of VOCs capacity, and LP nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as an additive to load into PU nanofiber thin film by electrospinning. For studying PU/LP nanofiber thin films's absorption of VOCs capacity, 4 samples (0, 10, 30, and 50 wt% LP with respect to PU) were manufactured, respectively. The results show that PU composite mats containing 30 wt% LP NPs has the highest VOCs absorption capacity, and the adsorption capacity for toluene was the highest compared to benzene and chloroform.
In this study, we designed the 3-dimensional tire mold according to the A automobile company’s tire model, and analysed the distribution of temperature of mold using the numerical method when the heat flux and heat transfer time at the surface of tire mold were changed. A analysis region of mold was the 1/16 of entire mold, and the grid number was about more than 880 thousand. In order to analyze the temperature change of mold, the thinnest part of the mold was chosen as the research object, and then the temperature of 6 points on the vertical downward direction of the thinnest part was analyzed with the time change. While the numerical condition was that heat flux was 321,200 W/m2, 440,000 W/m2 and 880,000 W/m2, and measuring time was 0.1 second, 0.2 second, 0.5 second and 1 second, respectively. As a result, the temperature difference between the surface temperature and the lowest temperature of mold was 7.3℃ when the heat transfer time was 0.1 second. Also, the minimum temperature difference was almost 0.11℃ when the heat transfer increased to 1 second. It can be explained that the main material of tire mold was aluminum and its thermal conductivity was high (k=140 W/m·K). In addition, when the heat transfer time was more than 1 second, the heat flux of mold surface will be transmitted at the inside of the thinnest part, and the heat transfer will be a marked difference according to the shape of the thinnest part.
This study describes the effects of treated water (TW) on PH changing, growth of watermelon seedlings, canola oil and diesel absorption, the antibacterial ability of the filter that composited from polyurethane(PU) and silver powder(Ag) producing by Electrospinning. In this study, we used the battery energy acquired from solar cell, the water has been processed when it pass through the electromagnetic field. The results of this research indicated that the PH value of TW changed slightly compared with untreated water (UW), but the TW could absorb smell of PH reagent. In addition, the TW could also promote the growth of watermelon seedling, and the growth of watermelon seedling stem length was about twice compared with UW. On the effects of canola oil and diesel absorption, the TW also showed a good oil absorptive capacity, especially for the diesel absorption, it could absorb 28% diesel. For the PU+PU+Ag/CNT filter, it showed about 100% of the antibacterial rate on strain 1 (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P) and 2 (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739).
In this study, we investigated the effects of EGR rate and engine load on the emission characteristics in a 4-cylinder common rail direct injection diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel (BD) blended fuel. The biodiesel blend fuel, BD20 (20 vol.% biodiesel and 80 vol.% ULSD blend) was used at an engine speed of 1,500rpm. The experimental results showed that with the increasing of EGR rate, the combustion pressure and rate of heat release (ROHR) of three test fuels were decreased, and the ignition delay was extended, the carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emissions increased slightly, but the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission decreased clearly. On the other hand, with the increasing of engine load, the combustion pressure and ROHR were increased, and the CO and PM emissions decreased. However, the NOx emission was increased due to the rise of the combustion temperature.