Cho, Eun & Oh, Sun-Young. (2023). “Representation of Native English Teachers and Korean English Teachers in Korean English Newspapers: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis”. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 31(2). 95-123. Native-speakerism, a pervasive issue in the field of English Language Teaching, is observed globally and prevalent in Korea. This ideology negatively affects both Native English Teachers (NETs) and Non-native English teachers like Korean English Teachers (KETs) for some reasons. This study utilizes corpus-based critical discourse analysis to examine the linguistic patterns and referential expressions used in Korean English newspapers to represent NETs and KETs. The analysis reveals significant disparities in their positions and authority within Korean English classrooms. Specifically, NETs are labeled as “assistants,” implying a subordinate role with limited authority, while KETs are referred to as “co-teachers,” signifying a more secure status. Moreover, the study highlights the challenges faced by KETs in demonstrating their English proficiency and sheds light on the discrimination faced by NETs who possess commodified linguistic capital and are of Caucasian descent. These findings emphasize the importance of raising awareness of native-speakerism in Korean newspapers.
By adopting a usage-based approach to language acquisition, this study investigated the emergence and development of L2 constructional knowledge. A total of 19 English verb-argument constructions (VACs) and their associated verbs were extracted from a learner corpus and three verbal fluency tasks, each conducted in L1 and L2 English and L1 Korean. We compared verb usage in the target VACs across proficiency levels between the L1 and L2 groups and between data types for VAC productivity and verb-VAC associations. The results identified three stages through which Korean learners’ VAC knowledge develops in L2 English: emerging through the frequent use of a few general verbs, expanding the range of verbs associated with a VAC to include more specific and prototypical verb types, and then developing them into a creative constructional schema. Moreover, we determined similarities between L1 and L2 English VAC knowledge in higher L2 proficiency levels, as well as L1 Korean influences related to L1 typology and L1 collocational transfer.
The act of refusal takes place in everyday lives, but it has been discussed to be a difficult speech act for nonnative speakers. This study seeks to investigate Korean EFL learners’ refusals in extended discourse along with their pragmatic perceptions. Sixteen college students were engaged in oral role-plays with two native English speakers and instructed to refuse the interlocutor’s request. The refusal performances were analyzed using conversation analysis framework with respect to the interlocutors’ different powers and the learners’ proficiency levels. Learners also participated in retrospective verbal reports. Findings depict different verbal and nonverbal features illustrating learners’ sensitivity towards higher status and their different linguistic abilities. Furthermore, their verbal reports revealed that despite their pragmatic awareness, learners were not fully equipped with appropriate L2 pragmatic knowledge.
Employing Halliday’s (1994) Systemic Functional Grammar approach, the present study examines the Korean EFL college students’ way of organizing thematic structures in written English texts, with special focus on the influence of learner proficiency. A total of 150 learners’ argumentative essays consisting of 50 essays each from three levels of learner groups were compared with 50 essays from its native counterparts, with inquiry focused on the thematic selection, usage of various theme features, and semantic distribution of topical themes. The results show that textual themes, multiple themes, and first person pronouns as topical themes are highly overused in the learner texts compared to the native essays. Overall, the level of proficiency significantly affects learners’ choices regarding thematic structures although the enhanced proficiency does not involve the improvement in all aspects of thematic organization. From these findings, it is suggested that the EFL writing pedagogy should pay greater attention to the effective use of thematic organization as a means of enhancing textual coherence and embrace level-specific instructions.
The present study investigates the use of signaling nouns (SNs) in published and Korean graduate student academic writing in applied linguistics. A set of 35 nouns was examined for their frequency as SNs, while the six most frequent SNs in published writing were subjected to detailed analyses of realization patterns. The results indicated that the nouns function as SNs in fifteen percent of the time of their total use and that students overall used a greater number of SNs than did published authors. Despite considerable overlap in the most frequent SNs, there was evidence that students rely on a narrower range of SNs than published writers. Published authors were differentiated from students in employing more anaphoric SNs, which contributed to cohesiveness and organization of text through the effective encapsulation of the preceding stretch of discourse. This study challenges the previous claim that the frequency of SNs positively correlates with the writing proficiency. Some pedagogical implications are drawn for academic writing instruction.
디지털콘텐츠 산업은 급속한 디지털 기술의 발전에 힘입어 유망산업으로 인식되고 있다. 하지만 저작권산업의 제반 환경이 이러한 디지털콘텐츠 산업의 급격한 변화에 좇아가지 못할 만큼 되어 이제 디지럴콘텐츠의 저작권 문 제는 사회적인 문제로까지 대두되기에 이르렀다. 문화콘텐츠 산업의 건강한 성장을 위해 현재의 디지털콘텐츠 유통 환경 개선은 필수불가결한 선행조건이다. 정부에서 진행하고 있는 디지털저작권거래소의 구축이 이러한 투명한 디 지럴저작권 유통환경 제공에 기여할 수 있을 것이다. 본 연구는 실제 디지털콘텐츠 이용자들의 디지털저작권거래소를 통한 디지럴저작물의 이용의도를 파악하여 효과적인 도입방안을 제시하고자 한다. 본 연구의 목적은 디지털저작 권거래소를 통한 디지털저작물의 이용의도에 영향을 미치는 요인들을 도출하고 각 요인들이 디지털저작권거래소를 통한 디지털저작물의 이용의도에 어떠한 영향을 미치는가를 분석하고 혁신요인들이 태도와 이용의도에 미치는 영향과 상호적인 인과관계를 규명하는데 있다.
Cellulose nanofibers from microfibril cellulose (MFC) was prepared by hydrobromic acid (HBr) treatment at different concentrations. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films at various loading level of nanofibers were manufactured by a film casting method. The analysis of degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity (Xc) and molecular weight (Mw) of cellulose after acid treatment was conducted. The mechanical and thermal properties of the cellulose nanofibers reinforced PVA films were characterized using tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The DP and Mw of MFC by HBr hydrolysis considerably decreased, but Xc showed no significant change. After acid hydrolysis, the diameter of cellulose nanofibers was in the range of 100 to 200 nm. The thermal stability of the films was steadily improved with the increase of nanofiber loading. There was a significant increase in the tensile strength of PVA composite films with the increase in MFC loading. Finally, 5 wt.% nanofiber loading exhibited the highest tensile strength and thermal stability of PVA composite films.
Polypropylene (PP) composites with wood flour/wax/coupling agent were manufactured by melt compounding and injection molding. The influence of wood flour(WF), wax, and coupling agent on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites was investigated. The addition of wood flour to neat PP has the higher tensile modulus and strength compared with neat PP. The presence of wax also improved the tensile modulus. At the same loading of PP and WF, the addition of coupling agent highly decreased the tensile modulus, and increased the tensile strength. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the addition of wax improved the thermal stability of the composites in the later stages of degradation. The presence of MAPP and wood flour in turn decreased thermal stabilities of composites. From differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), neither the loading of wax. nor the presence of MAPP has shown significant effect on the thermal transition of composites.
As a part of enhancing the performance of wood-plastic composites (WPC), polypropylene (PP)/ nanoclay (NC)/ wood flour (WF) nanocomposites were prepared using melt blending and injection molding process to evaluate their thermal stability. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate thermal degradation kinetics of the nanocomposites both dynamic and isothermal conditions. Dynamic scans of the TGA showed an increased thermal stability of the nanocomposites at moderate wood flour concentrations (up to 20 phr, percentage based on hundred percent resin) while it decreased with the addition of 30 phr wood flour. The activation energy (Ea) of thermal degradation of nanocomposites increased when nanoclay was added and the concentration of wood flour increased. Different equations were used to evaluate isothermal degradation kinetics using the rate of thermal degradation of the composites, expressed as weight loss (%) from their isothermal TGA curves. Degradation occurred at faster rate in the initial stages of about 60 min., and then proceeded in a gradual manner. However, nanocomposites with wood flour of 30 phr heated at 300℃ showed a drastic difference in their degradation behavior, and reached almost a complete decomposition after 40 min. of the isothermal heating. The degree of decomposition was greater at higher temperatures, and the residual weight of isothermal degradation of nanocomposites greatly varied from about 10 to 90%, depending on isothermal temperatures. The isothermal degradation of nanocomposites also increased their thermal stability with the addition of 1 phr nanoclay and of wood flour up to 20 phr. But, the degradation of PP100/NC1/MAPP3/WF30 nanocomposites with 30 phr wood flour occurs at a faster rate compared to those of the others, indicating a decrease in their thermal stability.
This paper describes the state-of-the art research activities on seismic isolation systems for improving the seismic capacities of the bridges in Korea. Though Korea is located in a region of low-to-moderate seismicity, the construction of seismic isolation systems has increased rapidly. The application of seismic isolation system has become popular worldwide because of its stable behavior and economical construction especially for bridge structures. Since optimal reliability level of isolated bridges can be determined as the one that provides the highest net life-cycle benefit to society, or the minimum Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), an optimal design procedure based on minimum LCC concept is more expedient for the design of seismically isolated bridges in areas of low-to-moderate seismicty. To verify the adequacy of the new design concept based on the LCC minimization, experimental studies on seismically isolated bridge are introduced as well, which include pseudo-dynamic test of scaled pier and dynamic field test of full-scale. With the application of seismic isolation systems, many kinds of dampers to improve the seismic capacity of structure are also applied not only to new bridges but also to existing bridges.
원자로 내 사고발생 시 냉각수의 비등으로 기포가 발생하고, 기포율을 측정하기 위하여 열수력 안전 분 야에서는 주로 Optical Fiber Probe(OFP)나 광학 카메라를 이용하여 측정하지만 기하학적 구조의 한계로 인 해 17 × 17 배열의 봉 다발 내에 장비를 설치하는 것에는 어려움이 있다. 본 연구는 예비 연구로서 봉 다발 에 적용하기 전 X선 시스템과 다양한 모사 팬텀을 이용하여 연구 가능성 평가를 수행하였다. 라디오그라피 및 토모그라피 실험을 통해 X선 발생 장치의 관전압 130 kVp, 관전류 1 mA가 적합하였다. 또한, 기포 해상 도 팬텀을 통해 가시적으로 1 mm 크기의 구멍에 대해 측정이 가능하였으며 막대 팬텀을 이용한 대조도 평 가의 경우 프레온 내부에서 대조도가 상대적으로 떨어짐을 확인할 수 있었다. 그러나 영상 재구성 시 일그 러짐이 없는 좋은 영상을 획득할 수 있었다. 기포 발생 팬텀 실험을 통해 기포의 유동 방향 확인 및 단층 영상을 획득할 수 있었고, Image J 툴을 이용하여 하나의 단층영상에 대해 18 %의 기포율을 측정할 수 있 었다. 본 연구는 핵연료 주변 기포율 측정을 위한 선행 연구를 수행하였고 지속적인 연구를 위한 기초 연 구로서 활용할 수 있을 것이다.
In order to improve the existing S-57 standard, International Hydrographic Organization(IHO) has developed S-100 standard, a Universal Hydrographic Data Model(UHDM) expanded from ISO 19100 series standard to hydrographic area, and is in the process of its implementation. International Maritime Organization(IMO) has established CMDS based on e-Navigation strategy data standard as International Association of Lighthouse Authorities(IALA) established IHDM based on aids to navigation data standard and each data standard is linked with the S-100 standard. Fundamental concept and core principles of S-100 standard is suitable not only for the development of a wide range of hydrographic data and service production standard, including the next generation ENC, but also the development of product specification of non-hydrographic area. This study has examined the operation principle of S-100 standard and analyzed its implementation process as e-Navigation data in relation with ENC. It also noted the utilization of S-100 standard based e-Navigation and its potential effect via examining the development cases of S-100 standard-based product specification, such as nautical publication, ship reporting and pilot request, digital routing guide, tide and water level transmission and other important data cases of e-Navigation field.