기후변화는 연안지역에 심각한 영향을 미치고 있으며 그 영향이 점점 증가할 것이라고 예상되는 바, 최근 기후변화 적응 및 리스크 평가에 있어 많은 연구들이 취약성과 함께 회복탄력성 개념을 이용하고 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 기후변화 적응을 위한 연안재해 회복탄력성 측정 모형을 개발하는 것이다. 측정 모형 개발에 앞서 연안재해 회복탄력성에 대한 광범위한 문헌검토를 통해 취약성과 회복 탄력성에 대한 조작적 정의와 함께 여러 피드백 메커니즘이 포함된 개념적 프레임워크를 작성하였다. 연안재해 회복탄력성 측정 모형은 네 가지 측정값(MRV, LRV, RTSPV, ND)과 연안재해 회복탄력성 복합 지수(CRI)를 포함하고 있으며, 개발된 지수는 국내 연안침식 사례에 적용되었다. 또한 지수 등급에 따른 지역적 분석이 수행되었다. 연구 결과, 네 가지 회복탄력성 측정값을 통해 각 지점이 가지는 연안침식 회복탄력성의 다양한 특성을 파악할 수 있음을 확인하였다. 연안 회복탄력성 복합 지수의 매핑 결과 서해안 및 남해안 지역에 비해 동해 안 지역들은 연안침식 회복탄력성이 상대적으로 떨어지는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 회복탄력성 측정 모형은 적응 이후의 이행전략에 대한 논의를 제공하는 도구로 활용될 수 있으며, 서로 다른 취약 지역 그룹 간 정책지원에 대한 우선순위를 결정하는 데 이용 가능하다.
Effective containment and disposal of high-level radioactive waste is critical to ensure long-term environmental and human safety. Especially bentonite, which is widely used as a buffer material due to its favorable characteristics such as swelling ability and low permeability, plays an important role in preventing the migration of radioactive waste into the surrounding environment. However, the long-term performance of bentonite buffer remains an area of ongoing investigation, with particular attention focused on erosion mechanisms induced by swelling and groundwater flow. The erosion of the bentonite buffer can significantly impact the integrity of buffer and lead to the formation of colloids, which could potentially facilitate the transport of radionuclides through groundwater. Therefore, quantification of bentonite buffer erosion based on an understanding of the underlying mechanisms and factors that influence bentonite buffer erosion, is essential for the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories. In this study, we aimed to develop a bentonite buffer erosion model using the Adaptive Processbased total system performance assessment framework for a geological disposal system (APro) proposed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The impact of bentonite erosion on performance assessment can be broadly divided into bentonite property degradation by the penetration of the bentonite buffer into rock fractures and the formation of pseudocolloids. To simulate this phenomenon, Two-region model based on a dynamic bentonite diffusion model is adopted, which can quantify the extent of bentonite intrusion and loss by erosion. Using this Tworegion model, a numerical model was developed to simulate the degradation of bentonite properties based on the amount of bentonite intrusion, as well as to simulate the migration of pseudocolloids in the near-field by deriving the amount of pseudocolloid production based on the loss of bentonite and the sorption rate of radionuclides. To check the applicability of the developed numerical model, preliminary analysis was performed for the effect of bentonite erosion in terms of process-based performance assessment. It is anticipated that this comprehensive model developed in this study will contribute to the accurate and reliable assessment of the long-term performance and safety of high-level radioactive waste repositories.
For the performance and safety assessments of deep geological disposal, developing scenarios, which represent possible long-term changes in the surface environment, is required. These scenarios are formulated using a list of FEPs (Features, Events, and Processes) that describes characteristics of disposal system components. In this study, using international FEP (IFEP) list from OECD/NEA, the individual FEPs related to uplift-subsidence and erosion-deposition were analyzed, and the correlation between each FEP was evaluated. From the IFEP list, the elements related to uplift-subsidence and erosion-deposition processes that cause long-term changes in the surface environment were identified. Uplift-subsidence, erosion - deposition, and the long-term change factors caused by them were analyzed and a correlation diagram was produced according to their interactions. Basis for the integrated analysis of long-term changes in the surface environment and the construction of long-term change scenarios were established considering the evaluation of the factors that cause uplift-subsidence and erosiondeposition, and their correlation with the hydrology-hydrogeology, topography and local climate of the affected surface. The results of this study will be used for systematically formulating scenarios of long-term changes in the surface environment due to uplift-subsidence and erosion-deposition based on natural phenomena. And, it may be necessary to modify and supplement the correlation of domestic FEPs based on the correlation diagram of IFEPs in order to analyze long-term changes in the surface environment in an integrated manner.
The compacted bentonite buffer is a key component of the engineered barrier system in deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Groundwater infiltration into the deep geological repository leads to the saturation of the bentonite buffer. Bentonite saturation results in bentonite swelling, gelation and intrusion into the nearby rock discontinuities within the excavation damaged zone of the adjacent rock mass. Groundwater flow can result in the erosion and transport of bentonite colloids, resulting in bentonite mass loss which can negatively impact the long-term integrity and safety of the overall engineered barrier system. The hydro -mechanicalchemical interactions between the buffer, surrounding host rock and groundwater influence the erosion characteristics of the bentonite buffer. Hence, assessing the critical hydro-mechanicalchemical factors that negatively affect bentonite erosion is crucial for the safety design of the deep geological repository. In this study, the effects of initial bentonite density, aperture, discontinuity angle and groundwater chemistry on the erosion characteristics of Bentonil WRK are investigated via bentonite extrusion and artificial fracture experiments. Both experiments examine bentonite swelling and intrusion into simulated rock discontinuities; cylindrical holes for bentonite extrusion experiments and plane surfaces for artificial fracture experiments. Compacted bentonite blocks and bentonite pellets are manufactured using a compaction press and granulation compactor respectively and installed in the transparent extrusion cells and artificial fracture cells. The reference test condition is set to be 1.6 g/cm3 dry density and saturation using distilled water. After distilled water or solution injection, the axial and radial expansion of the bentonite specimens into the simulated rock discontinuities are monitored for one month under free swelling conditions with no groundwater flow. Subsequent flow tests are conducted using the artificial fracture cell to determine the critical flow rate for bentonite erosion. The intrusion and erosion characteristics are modelled using a modified hydro-mechanicalchemical coupled dynamic bentonite diffusion model and a fluid-based hydro-mechanical penetration model.
The presence of technological voids in deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive nuclear waste can have negative effects on the hydro-mechanical properties of the engineered barrier system when groundwater infiltrates from the surrounding rock. This study conducted hydration tests along with image acquisition and X-ray CT analysis on compacted Korean bentonite samples, which simulated technological voids filling to investigate the behavior of fracturing (piping erosion) and cracking deterioration. We utilized a dual syringe pump to inject water into a cell consisting of a bentonite block and technological voids at a consistent flow rate. The results showed that water inflow to fill technological voids led to partial hydration and self-sealing, followed by the formation of an erosional piping channel along the wetting front. After the piping channel generated, the cyclic filling-piping stage is characterized by the repetitive accumulation and drop of water pressure, accompanied by the opening and closing of piping channels. The stoppage of water inflow leads to the formation of macro- and micro cracks in bentonite due to moisture migration caused by high suction pressure. These cracks create preferential flow paths that promote longterm groundwater infiltration. The experimental test and analysis are currently ongoing. Further experiments will be conducted to investigate the effects of different dry density in bentonite, flow rate, and chemical composition of injected water.
The concept of deep geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste is based on an engineered barrier system (EBS), including a canister, bentonite buffer and backfill material. The bentonite buffer is key component of the EBS to prevent groundwater infiltration and radionuclide leakage. However, the bentonite buffer can become saturated due to groundwater flow through the excavation damaged zone in the adjacent rock, causing erosion of bentonite buffer and affecting the long-term performance of EBS. While the RH (relative humidity) sensor is commonly used to assess the degree of saturation in the bentonite buffer, it has a critical challenge due to its sensor size, which can disturb the overall integrity of the bentonite buffer during the initial installation process. In contrasts, the electrical resistivity test, widely known as a non-destructive method, is used to predict soil properties such as the degree of saturation and water contents. This method measures the electric resistance of materials using electric current induced by electric potential difference between two electrodes. Notably, there is no study that assess the integrity of bentonite buffer in a nuclear waste repository using electrical resistivity measurement. This study presents the electrical resistance numerical module under steady state using commercial finite element method (FEM), and quantitatively estimate the change of electrical resistance according to saturation and erosion of bentonite buffer. Furthermore, the electric potential and current density distribution formed between two electrodes are analyzed.
일반적인 불투과형 사방댐은 제체 대부분이 콘크리트로 구성되어 분리 및 해체가 어려워 조속한 보강이 난해하다는 단점이 있다. 이러한 단점을 보완하기 위한 투과형 강재 스크린 사방댐이 제작되어 사용 중에 있지만, 강재가 부식되는 등 여러 문제를 보이는 실정이다. 이에 따라, 선행 연구에서는 강재 스크린 구조물을 내부식성이 뛰어난 GFRP로 대체하여 성능 및 안전 성을 검증하였지만, 동수압만 고려되는 등 다양한 조건이 고려되지 않은 것으로 확인되었다. 그렇기에 본 연구에서는 선행 연구 에서 수행된 GFRP 스크린 구조물뿐만 아니라, CFRP도 고려하였으며, 보다 다양한 표면 유속 별 하중 조건 및 유목, 토석류 등 과 같은 다양한 조건에서의 성능 비교 및 안전성 평가를 수행하였다. 해석 결과, GFRP와 CFRP는 강재 대비 제체에 작용하는 응력이 29.79∼91.73%가량 감소된 성능을 보이며, 이 외에도 충분한 안전성과 경제성을 겸비함을 확인하였다. 결론적으로 GFRP 및 CFPR 스크린 구조물은 강재 투과형 사방댐을 대체하여 사용하기에 충분하다고 판단되지만, 이는 수치 해석을 통한 결과이 므로 향후 실제 실험이 진행될 필요가 있을 것으로 판단된다.
Compacted bentonite buffer blocks placed in the engineered barrier system for high-level nuclear waste disposal can undergo swelling, intrusion into rock fractures, and erosion with saturation. Bentonite erosion and intrusion can lead to bentonite mass loss via groundwater flow and can ultimately compromise the overall integrity of the disposal system. To ensure the long-term safety of deep geological disposal, it is essential to assess the hydro-mechanical interactions between the bentonite buffer and surrounding rock. In this study, the impact of bentonite erosion and intrusion on the mechanical properties of the jointed rock mass were assessed via elastic wave propagation measurements using the quasi-static resonant column test. Granite rock discs obtained from the Korea Underground Research Tunnel and Gyeongju bentonite were used to simulate jointed rock specimens with different bentonite intrusion conditions. Different degrees of bentonite intrusion were simulated by mixing bentonite and water to create bentonite paste and gel. The longitudinal and shear wave velocities under different normal stress levels were used to quantify the effects of bentonite intrusion on the mechanical characteristics of the rock joint. Complementary numerical analysis using the three-dimensional distinct element code (3DEC) was conducted to provide improved understanding of wave propagation within bentonite gouge-filled rock mass.
Bentonite is a promising buffer material for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal due to the high nuclides sorption capacity and swelling property. However, bentonite has the potential to generate colloid particles, with small particle sizes less than 1,000 nm when in contact with groundwater. The bentonite colloids easily form pseudo-colloid with the released nuclides and migrate through the water-conducting rock to the biosphere. Therefore, understanding the generation and migration of bentonite colloids is crucial in assessing the safety of the HLW repository. In this study, an artificial fracture system was prepared to investigate colloid release from compacted bentonite. A 250 mm diameter acrylic artificial fracture system was used, with 30 mm of compacted calcium bentonite installed. Artificial groundwater flow was injected into the system at a flow rate of 250 μL/h, and every 6 mL of leachate was collected by a fraction collector. A film-type pressure sensor was equipped to monitor the swelling pressure, and the swelling was observed using a digital microscope. The results indicate that the compacted bentonite formed a mineral ring originating from the swelling of the bentonite, and the end of the ring generated colloid particles due to chemical erosion. Although the release rate of colloids increased with increasing flow rate, the colloid ratio depended on the low ionic strength of the injected artificial groundwater. This work contributes to the understanding of the chemical erosion and colloid release mechanism of compacted bentonite.
Performance and safety assessments for deep geological disposal are often conducted over a longterm time scale, such as from hundreds of thousands to a million years. During this period, it is expected that the surface environment will be changed significantly. Uplift-subsidence and erosion-deposition are thought to be included as the main causes of the changes, and it is necessary to evaluate their expected effects. In this study, the conceptual processes of the changes in the surface environment components were to be presented by identifying the uplift-subsidence and erosion-deposition processes and analyzing their effect on the surface environment components. For inferring the long-term change process of the surface environment due to the internal activities of the Earth, the process of uplift and subsidence caused by crustal movements that change the subsurface environment through the deep and sallow underground was briefly presented in the form of a chain flowchart. Uplift-subsidence is mainly caused by diastrophism due to tectonic movement, such as subduction at the boundary of plates. They can change the geomorphology by affecting sealevel change and erosion-deposition. The changed geographical features have an influence on the distribution of surface water and the flow path of groundwater. They also have an impact on the scale and processes of local uplift and erosion, which can be the main factors of pedogenesis and vegetation in the local site. The results of this study can be helpful for formulating scenarios related to long-term evolution in the surface environment required for performance and safety assessments of deep geological disposal.
Compacted bentonite buffer materials are a key component of the engineered barrier system for high-level radioactive waste disposal. The bentonite buffer is saturated via groundwater flow through the excavation damaged zone in the adjacent rock mass. Bentonite saturation results in bentonite swelling, gelation and intrusion into the nearby rock discontinuities. Groundwater flow can cause bentonite erosion and transportation of bentonite colloids. This bentonite mass loss can negatively impact the long-term integrity of the engineered barrier system. Hence, it is necessary to understand the effects of erosion on the properties of the bentonite buffer. In this study, a series of artificial fracture erosion experiments are conducted to investigate the erosion characteristics of compacted Ca-bentonite buffer materials for different initial dry density conditions. Compacted bentonite blocks and bentonite pellets were manufactured using the cold isostatic pressing technique and granulation compactor respectively. The specimens were placed in a custommade transparent artificial fracture cell and the bentonite intrusion characteristics were monitored for two months under free swelling conditions with no groundwater flow. The radial expansion of the bentonite specimens within the artificial fracture was measured using a digital camera. In addition, the swelling pressure, displacement, and saturation were determined using a load cell-piston system, LVDT, and electrical resistivity electrodes respectively. A hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled dynamic bentonite diffusion model was applied to model the bentonite erosion characteristics using COMSOL Multiphysics.
When a rapid groundwater inflow is introduced from the adjacent rock mass in the early stage of disposal, hydraulic pressure build-up occurs, which may cause piping erosion at the buffer material itself and the interface of the gap-filling material. Such piping erosion in compacted bentonite buffer via interaction between the buffer and the adjacent rock mass may deteriorate the performance of the buffer material. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the conditions and scenarios in which the piping phenomenon around the buffer material occurs for the long-term health of the repository. In this study, laboratory-scale experimental tests of piping erosion in buffer and interfacial rock was introduced. ø 100 mm × 200 mm height compacted bentonite specimens were placed in a cylindrical acetal cell, and the distilled water was continuously injected at a flow rate of 0.068 L/min using a dual syringe pump. The inflow of water was generated from the bottom and side cell of buffer material. During water injection, injected water pressure and amount were measured with visual observation. The results showed that the external saturation of buffer firstly occurs followed by piping crack generation along the wetting front. The additional piping channels were generated and merged with others. As the injection stopped, the swelling and self-sealing behavior of buffer material were observed. Moreover, X-ray CT scanning of the cell was conducted after the piping simulation to analyze the piping channels and saturation depth. The results highlight the piping erosion phenomenon mainly occurs due to the presence of a gap outside the buffer material. Further experimental cases is need to comprehensively understand piping phenomena in buffer material for assessing the long-term stability of underground radioactive waste disposal systems.
전세계적으로 발생하고 있는 기후 이상으로 인하여 해수면이 상승되고 있고 각종 개발행위로 인하여 연안침식 현상은 우리의 안전을 본격적으로 위협하고 있다. 연안침식의 위험성을 인지한 각국은 연안침식에 대한 대응을 위한 노력을 경주하고 있고 우리 역시 1990년대에 이르러 연안 침식을 위한 각종 다양한 정책을 추진하고 있다. 특히 법률유보원리에 따라 우리나라 역시 여러 법률을 통하여 연안침식에 대응하기 위한 정책을 구체화하고 있다. 연안관리법과 국토의 계획 및 이용에 관한 법률, 공유수면 관리 및 매립에 관한 법률 그리고 자연재해대책법 등 연안침식관리를 위한 근거 법률은 적지 않게 존재하고 있다. 하지만 연안에 대한 전반적인 관리를 연안관리법이 연안침식 대응을 위하여 직접 봉사하는 법률이라고 볼 수 있지만 이에서도 연안침식에 대한 사항은 산재하여 규정되어 있어서 연안침식에 대한 실효적인 정책을 담보하고 있지는 못하고 있으며 다른 법률 역시 연안침식이 아닌 다른 목적을 위하여 규정된 법률이라는 점에서 그 적용에는 적지 않은 한계가 존재한다. 우리나라는 해역별 지형구조 및 퇴적환경에 따른 보다 다각적인 연안침식에 대한 대응방안이 요구됨에 불구하고 법률에서 이를 감안한 보다 실효적인 정책을 규정하고 있지 않다는 점에서 연안침식 대응에 있어 상당히 실효적인 정책을 추진하고 있다는 영국의 경험을 참고할 만하다. 영국은 연안침식 대응을 위하여 여러 법률을 제정․개정하고 있지만 영국의 정책에 있어 두드러지는 사항은 계획을 적극적으로 활용하고 있다는 것이다. 연안침식은 장기간에 걸쳐 서서히 그리고 갑작스럽게 발행한다는 사항에 주목하여 장기적 정책설정에 주안점을 두고 있는 것이다. 뿐만 아니라 연안침식대응을 위하여 다각적인 대응방향성을 고집하고 있다는 것 역시 주목할 만하다. 이에 우리 역시 보다 장기적인 수준에서 정책을 수립할 필요성과 각종 다양한 행위자 간의 협업을 유인할 필요성을 인정되는 것이 사실이라는 점에서 이를 반영하는 연안관리법 개정안을 고민하여야 할 것이다.
본 연구는 손상된 선박용 절탄기 핀튜브에 대하여 보수를 목적으로 Inconel 625 아크 열용사 코팅기술 적용 후 실링처리를 실시하였다. 모재(Substrate), 열용사 코팅(Thermal Srpay Coating; TSC) 그리고 열용사 코팅+실링처리(TSC+Sealing) 시편에 대하여 내구성을 평가하기 위해 ASTM G76-05에 의거하여 고상입자 침식(Solid Particle Erosion; SPE) 실험을 실시하였다. 표면 손상 형상은 주사전자현미경과 3D 레이져 현미경을 통해 관찰했으며, 무게 감소량과 표면 거칠기 분석을 실시하여 내구성을 평가하였다. 그 결과 내구성은 TSC와 TSC+Sealing에 비해 Substrate가 우수하게 나타났으며, 이는 TSC 층 내에 존재하는 다수의 기공 결함에 기인한 것으로 판단된다. 또한 고상 입자 침식 손상 메카니즘은 Substrate의 경우 연성 재질 특성인 소성변형과 피로에 의한 균열 생성이 동반되었으며, TSC와 TSC+Sealing의 경우 취성파괴 경향이 확인되었다.