수형자의 사회복귀능력을 향상시키기 위한 가장 바람직한 교정처우의 방식은 수형자 개개인의 인격적 특성에 알맞은 개별처우라고 할 수 있으며, 이를 실현하기 위해서는 최소한 다음의 두 가지 조건을 충족해야 할 것이다. 첫째 조건은 수형자를 분류심사의 결과에 따라 그에 적합한 교정시설에 수용하여 그 특성에 알맞은 처우를 하기 위해서 교정시설과 처우프로그램을 다양화해야 할 것이다. 그러나 우리나라는 재정상의 이유 등으로 이러한 조건을 충족시키지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 둘째 조건은 수형자의 분류에 적응한 교정처우의 체계를 수립 하는 것이 요구된다. 그런데 우리나라는 그동안 수형자의 처우를 위하여 분류제와 누진제를 동시에 시행하면서 분류제보다는 누진제에 따른 처우에 중점을 두어 오다가 행형법이 전면 개정되면서 누진제보다는 분류제에 따른 처우에 중점을 두는 교정처우의 체계를 수립하였다고 할 수 있다. 그러나 우리나라는 아직도 중 ･ 대형 교정시설이 다수 존재하고 또한 처우프로그램이 다양화되어 있지 않기 때문에 개별처우를 실현하기 위한 조건을 충분히 갖추었다고 볼 수 없는 실정이다. 그리하여 우리나라는 수형자의 인격적 특성을 고려한 개별처우를 실시하려고 해도 이를 실현하기 위한 조건을 갖추고 있지 못하기 때문에 실질적인 개별처우를 하는데 일정한 한계가 있을 수밖에 없다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 개별처우의 필요성과 분류제의 확립, 교정시설 및 처우의 현황과 다양화 필요성, 교정시설과 처우의 다양화 방안 등에 대하여 살펴보았다.
본 연구에서는 단면형상변화 따른 플레이트거더단면의 공기역학적 진동특성을 파악하기 위하여 변장비 B/ D=2.5~15범위에서 6종류의 기본단면에 대하여 주거더수를 2개 및 3개로 변화시킨 12개의 단면에 대하여 영각 -5o~+5o 범위에서 풍동실험을 통하여 동적 풍응답을 측정하였다. 그 결과를 요약하면, 변장비가 증가할수록 연직와류진동의 최대진폭이 감소하였고 비틀림 와류진동은 증가하는 경향이 나타났으며, 대상단면들은 비틀림 발산진동이 내풍안정성을 지배하고 있으며 변장비 증가와 함께 한계풍속이 점차 증가하였고 갤로핑은 변장비 2.5단면에서만 발생하였다. 3-주거 더 단면은 중앙거더의 영향으로 2-주거더 단면에 비하여 전반적으로 안정적인 것으로 나타났다.
벌금형은 재산의 박탈을 통한 응보와 일반예방효과를 충분히 기대하면서도 범죄인을 교정시설에 구금하지 않음으로써 사회복귀가 용이하고 악습감염의 폐해도 없을 뿐만 아니라 관리에 비교적 경비가 적게 드는 장점이 있기 때문에 단기자유형의 대안으로서 확대 적용되는 추세이다. 우리나라에서도 최근 형사사건에서 벌금형의 선고건수가 자유형의 선고건수보다 훨씬 초과하는 것을 볼 때 벌금형이 가장 보편적인 형사제재로 자리 잡아 가고 있다고 해도 지나치지 않을 것이다. 벌금형제도가 갖는 그러한 일반적인 장점에도 불구하고 점차 개선해나가야 할 부분이 많은 것은 사실이지만, 현재 우리나라 벌금형의 운영현황에서 볼 때 시급히 대처해야 할 문제로 지적되는 것 중의 하나가 저조한 집행율과 벌금미납자에 대한 제재이다. 현행법상 벌금미납자에 대해서는 노역장유치라는 환형처분을 하고 있는데, 노역장유치라는 자유박탈은 단기자유형의 폐해를 그대로 드러내는 단점을 안고 있다. 따라서 본 논문은 벌금형의 운용현황과 문제점 및 개선방안 그리고 노역장유치의 운용현황과 문제점을 살펴본 후 노역장유치의 개선방안을 제시해 보았다.
The conventional in-prison treatment and programs have limited inmates' reintegration by making their contacts with outside world difficult. However as the goal of punishment has moved from that of retribution into rehabilitation and reintegration, the importance of contacts with the society has been gradually recognized. The methods of "open treatment" is designed to reduce the degree of surveillance and control and at the same time to increase inmates' responsibility and self-reliance. Through more contacts with outside world, inmates are able to learn how to work and live as law-abiding citizens and through more autonomous life in prison, inmates can get the competency about themselves. Many experts agree that this is the most effective way to rehabilitate criminal offenders. On the contrary, although many believe the effectiveness of "open treatment," some are worried about the risk of break-out from prison. Inmates' break out of the prison surely make the safety of the innocent public in danger and it is the worst scenario in the eye of the advocates for open treatment. Regarding this issue, one should weigh a positive outcome of reintegration and rehabilitation and a negative outcome of the risk of inmate's run-away. In fact, the negative consequence does not outweigh the positive effects of the open treatment. That's why we should continue to administer various methods of the open treatment.
The Ministry of Justice has revised the existing "law concerning the execution of criminal punishment" in the way that enhanced human rights for inmates and their ability for reintegration. To fulfil this goal, the authority changed the title of the law to "the Law concerning correctional facilities and the treatment for inmates and waited for legislative process. In the same context, the corrections bureau in the Ministry recently announced "The Strategic Plan for the Changes in Correctional Administration" to show its committment for innovation. This article reviewed the contents of the new law and the strategic plan, and then pointed out some limitations of these efforts. When it comes to the new law-The law concerning correctional facilities and the treatment for inmates, the contents of the law did not reach the expectation, first because there are too many exceptions that breach the basic human rights of inmates and second, the law did not make any efforts or policies to enhance the adapatability of inmates into a wider society compulsory. Instead, it allow authorities use discretionary power. As far as the Strategic Plan is concerned, it seems too idealistic. In other words, many proposed plan is hard to achieve in reality. Therefore I suggested some alternative ideas such as developing correctional programs for short-time inmates, improving living conditions in facilities, linking classification system and progressive treatment system, and increasing parolees by utilizing the probation system.
The fundamental purpose of modern correctional treatment can be to surely make convicts return to society through individualization of treatment. However, it seems individualization of treatment may not be so helpful for convicts in returning to society unless it is the most appropriate and rational individual treatment that considers their property and character on the basis of exact understanding on each convict. Especially, as individual personality and property is emphasized and persons with different view of life, view of world and sense of value are living together nowadays, it seems almost impossible to return convicts to society merely through individualization of treatment, ignoring the fact that ‘proper sphere of character’ exists. Thus, seeking the method of correctional treatment appropriate to the age of individualization like the present time seems to be the most important task of modern correctional administration. The concept of individualization of treatment can be said to be established on the basis of ‘rational sense of human being’ that has ruled so far since the 17th century. Rational sense of human being may be image of human being that overlooks the fact that ‘proper sphere of character’ unique to each person obviously exists by grasping human being merely with abstract concept that human being is 'free and rational individual.' However, returning convicts to society through individualization of treatment based on rational sense of human being will be inevitably subject to regular limit. Therefore, it seems that so-called ‘personification of treatment’ is necessary which is based on the premise that each person has ‘proper sphere of character’ in the age of individualization like the present time. Needless to say, it may not be so easy to clearly define what ‘personification of treatment’ is and what it should be. Thus, it may be necessary to first find method to secure conversation and trust between characters or between individual character and community (society or correction authorities) before defining the concept of ‘personification of treatment.’ It is true that the correctional treatment has treated convicts not as ‘principal of correction’ or ‘partner of conversation’ but as ‘object of correction’ or ‘object of treatment’ thus far. I think that this is why so-called ‘personification of treatment’ is not realized which considers the property and character of convicts, based on the exact understanding on each of them. Therefore, in order to efficiently achieve the purpose of returning convicts to society in the present time, it is required to recognize convicts as ‘principal of correction’ or ‘partner of conversation’ and to enforce ‘personification of treatment’ on the basis of the fact that they also have ‘proper sphere of character.’
As long as convicted prisoner is a citizen of the nation, his/her fundamental human rights must be guaranteed to the maximum extent in accordance with the constitutional spirit within the range of not becoming a barrier to accomplish a legitimate penological purpose. When we put too much emphasis on protection of human rights of prisoners insomuch as to disturb and violate the correctional order and regulations, however, it would not only cause life and physical safety of both prisoner and correctional officer to be threatened but to make eligible prisoners unable to return to society through correctional and reformative activities, which are basic and valid penological objectives, and also correctional institute unable to detain an offender in custody that is a premise of imprisonment. Therefore, it is required to accomplish the ultimate penological goals so much as to make convict return to society, while the state should guarantee human rights of prisoners, and, at the same time, firmly establish correctional orders. But there are contradictory relationships between protection of convict rights and establishment of correctional orders, so that problems have risen in due course from the perspective of how to achieve harmonization between the two. Then, it would not be too much to say that to maintain discipline and order in correctional institution up to an appropriate level is the most basic premise for penological practices. In this sense, it can be said that to establish correctional orders in a firm manner is essential for penological practices. If discipline and order is exceedingly strict in observance, however, convict will merely become an object to be controlled, thus that it would be not only difficult to achieve certain expected effects of correctional goals but to bring about worries to infringe human rights because of unwanted limitation of fundamental rights of individuals. So then, it is thought that to set up balanced relations between human rights protection and establishment of correctional order by harmonizing tensive relationships in between is an important task in contemporary correctional practices. In any case, limitation of fundamental human rights of convict, however, should not cross boundary that has been set in order to maintain an orderly prison life having secured physical custody of convict.
Release on parole is a system by which a person who, by judgment, was sentenced to imprisonment and is confined in prison is released even before a prison term expires in case his behavior is exemplary and he shows sincere repentance and, thereafter unless the release on parole is cancelled or invalidated under his behavior, the execution of the punishment is to be considered terminated. Release on parole not only make convict's return to society earlier by reducing a period of unnecessary punishment execution, but also plays a role of promoting convict's voluntary desire to return to society during a term of imprisonment. Therefore, a parole system, only if active and appropriately operated in the right direction, can be said to be a very ideal correctional system able to make convict's return to society earlier. But, in spite of the legal basis that can execute extensively within the country probationary supervision on an adult convict who was release on parole, a parole system is negatively carried out in our country, which is probably caused by people regarding parole as only a reduced term of imprisonment. But, parole can be regarded as not a reduced term of imprisonment but a new type of execution of punishment converted from institutional treatment into community treatment. Like this, parole means that a convict in confinement is converted from the conditions under institutional treatment to the conditions under community treatment, so this system may bring about the maximum probationary effects only if amicable cooperation between the persons in charge of institutional and community treatment is realized. Accordingly, the criminal policy tends to stress more the importance of community treatment of a convict than that of institutional treatment. From such a viewpoint, in this paper, I inquired into the present situation of the parole system of our country and proposed a plan for improving the parole examination system (Parole Examination Committee and Probationary Supervision Examination Committee), a plan for linking parole to probationary supervision, a plan for making parole activated, etc.
Imprisonment plays and stands the important roles to substitute the pre-modern corporal punishment to the modern punishment systems. The main purpose of imprisonment execution is rehabilitation for convicts by preservation of public peace and reformation education. However, it is not convinced that the current imprisonment system as "ideal punishment" with execution purpose of convicts' rehabilitation has performed satisfactorily. Therefore, reconsideration for restriction of freedom itself should be reflected and an alternative punishment institution for imprisonment shall be searched and studied. From this point of view, it seems criminal policy should head forward to the direction that can control the restriction of freedom as much as possible. This dissertation, hence, reviews the "Materialization and Features of Modern Imprisonment Systems" and examines "Limitations and Controversial Issues of Imprisonment as Criminal Policy". And then, to present the development schemes of Korean execution system, "Successive Adaptation Plans for Limitation of Freedom", "Expansion of Parole System and Application of Probation System" and "Establishment of Correction Agency" are studied. "Successive Adaptation Plans for Limitation of Freedom" exhibits the supervision treatment and open treatment programs; in "Expansion of Parole System and Application of Probation System" section, necessity of close connection between parole and probation systems is emphasized; and "Establishment of Correction Agency" reconsiders the efficiency of reformation administration and asserts the establishment for supervision office to inspire public service personnels morale. In conclusion, to draw out the goals of current criminal policy as it is, imprisonment execution system is inevitable. Nevertheless, pains from restriction of freedom must be mineralized, that is, the system should be the one minimizes the reactions or side effects from isolation from society and personal imprisonment. To do this, from humanitarian, rational and economic points of view, open-reformatory, practical programs of releasing before the expiration of terms and alleviation of unessential regulations are demanded. Steady contacts with society and extension of association scope will relax convicts affliction caused by separation from society and be easy to rehabilitate, accordingly, Korean criminal policy should head forward to the system that emphasizes treatment within society.
This study examined the environmental factors that increase juvenile delinquencies, reviewed the current state and problems of the policy for protecting delinquent juveniles, and proposed improvement plans. Environmental factors that increase juvenile delinquencies are believed to be rapid urbanization, the malfunction of families and schools, changes and diversification of the value system, the influence of mass communications, etc. Therefore, as social and political measures for protecting delinquent juveniles, it is necessary to promote juvenile delinquency prevention movements by local societies, reinforce the function of families, strengthen the all-round education of schools, establish a new value system, and tighten regulations on mass communications harmful to juveniles. In addition to these, as measures based on the Juvenile Law, it is required to individualize and diversify educative measures, pay special attention to sending delinquent juveniles to training schools or reform schools, develop various types of training schools and their programs, create regulations on the juvenile diversion of the police, and assure a due procedure in the protective process of juveniles.
Although the purposes of punishment vary with their theoretical standpoints, the function of "special deterrence" of the criminals should be the primary correctional goal. Article 1 of the Korean Correction Law defines that "the reintegration of inmates" is the main objectives of the execution of punishment. "A short-term imprisonment" which deprives criminals of their liberty for the short period of time is too short to run the rehabilitative programs for fulfilling the goal of "reintegration." In contrast, it provides sufficient time for the criminals to learn criminal techniques and attitudes from their prison colleagues. In this sense, some argue that this type of punishment has more negative effects rather than it serves the correctional goal. As a result, attempts are recently made to find out alternatives of the short-term deprivation of liberty(e.g. pecuniary punishment). However, there have been much controversies about the exact time-span of "the short-term" punishment and the clear diagnosis of the alleged negative impacts. This article, therefore, is designed first to illustrate possible negative effects of the short-term imprisonment with its relation to the penological thoughts, and then seek alternative types of punishment that better serve the correctional idea of "reintegration."
계가 혼돈거동을 나타낼 경우에는 변수들의 미소변화에 의해서도 계가 전혀 다른 거동을 나타낼 수 있기 때문에 비선형계의 설계 및 해석시에는 이를 고려해야 한다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 구형 쉘의 중앙에 충격하중이 수직방향으로 작용하는 경우, 쉘의 기하학적 비선형성과 재료적 비선형성으로부터 기인되는 혼돈거동을 해석하였다. 쉘의 탄소성거동을 유한요소법을 이용하여 구한 후 계의 거동을 변위-시간이력, 프앙카레 맵, phase diagram등의 표준적인 방법들을 이용하여 쉘의 혼돈거동을 규명하였다. 해석결과, 계는 혼돈거동을 나타내었으나 탄소성보의 경우와는 달리 초기조건의 미소변화에 대한 극도의 민감도는 나타나지 않았으며 시간에 대한 쉘의 거동특성도 크게 변하지 않았다. 프앙카레 맵은 한정된 영역에 결쳐서 점들이 분포되었기 때문에 계의 거동이 혼돈거동임을 보여 주고 있지만 혼돈계의 프앙카레 맵에서 나타나는 기하학적 구조는 나타나지 않았다. 에너지선도를 이용하여 쉘이 하중의 작용방향 또는 반대방향으로 불규칙적으로 snap-through되는 원인을 규명하였다.