Although the sparganosis involving soft tissues, i.e, tongue, cheek, etc., has been frequently reported, the mandibular involvement of sparganosis is not reported up to date. We present a case of intraosseous sparganosis involving whole mandible, which was clinically diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis. After surgical operation of saucerization for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis the removed specimens were pathologically examined and finally turned out intraosseous sparganosis. Radiological findings showed irregular multiple radiolucencies in round to ovoid shape throughout both mandibular body areas, of which peripheral rarefying radiopacity was less remarkable compared to the ordinary osteomyelitis. However, the radiolucencies of periapical granuloma, #34-36, were closely associated with the osteolytic lesions of mandibular body. Pathological examination showed a tunnel like space for the passage of sparganum larva, and heavy infiltration of eosinophilicleukocytes. And more, the parasitic tegument materials were found admixed with eggs in the granulomatous lesion, which were gradually degraded and resolved. Taken together, we presumed that the mandibular inflammatory lesion was primarily involved with sparganosis and secondarily aggravated by the periapical infection of #34-36.
The importance of strategic operation on the IT outsourcing israpidly increasing. The selection process of IT outsourcer plays a critical role since the service quality determined by IT outsourcer is directly linked with each other. While the importance of the selection process is realized, it is still quite drift and subjective. This paper proposes an evaluation model that helps a decision group to select a proper IT outsourcer among alternatives by using Analytic Hierarchy Program, AHP. In this paper, the web system is designed the way that focuses on group decision making with a geometric mean method, GMM, of AHP for IT outsourcer selection.
In recent years the design of modular products has become the focus of significant research in the area of design theory and methodology. This phenomenon is due to the power of modularity to achieve certain product objectives. Product modularity has many advantages but it can cause reliability problem which relates to simplicity, clarity, and unity of product components. This paper uses fuzzy cluster identification for classifying the functions into several modules and entropy for measuring reliability. We present the relationship between product modularity and reliability according to the number of modules and components.
Using the cluster analysis based on the information source and object of technological innovation, technological innovation types of domestic manufacturing firms are categorized into market-oriented external dependent sector, low-profile self-development sector, capital-intensive self-development sector, low-profile technology-activated sector and cost-oriented self-development sector. To analyze the corporation characteristics that determine the three technological innovation types of product innovation, product improvement and process innovation, the bayesian multinomial logit model is employed. This study shows that the types of technological innovation are determined by the firm and the sector characteristics. The study also finds that there are some firm specific characteristics that affect the type of technological innovation, while some other firm characteristics have an effect depending on the sector they are in.