Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is essential for proliferation of eukaryotic cells, andwas identified as diagnotic marker in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical and endometrial cancer, but relatively little is known about thein vivo and in vitro expression patterns of eIF-5A in oral premalignant and malignant lesions mirror the expression levels observed in vitro with cells derived from normal oral mucosa, immortalized oral keratinocytes (IHOK) and primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We used an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression model composed of cell lines and tissue specimens to characterize expression patterns by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. eIF-5A and PCNA levels are elevated in IHOKand primary and metastatic OSCC cella as compatred to normal human oral keraitinocytes. eIF5A and PCNA expression was l imited to basal cells of normal oral mucosa. eIF-5A and PCNA expression is increased in dysplastic epithelium spreading to more superficial layers, and its expression levels correlated significantly with the degree of dysplasia. Well and moderately differentiated OSCC showed strong expression of eIF-5A and PCNA. These results suggest that upregulated expression of eIF-5A seems to be an important epigenetic alteration that accompanies oral carcinogenic progression, and eIF-5A could be used as an biomarker for oral premalignat lesion or squamous cell carcinoma
Elevated expression of survivin is strongly associated with tumorigenesis and even in human common cancers. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the 7th most frequent cancer in human and responsible for more than 90% of all oral cancer. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether survivin is associated with oral carcinogenesis, expecially has a role in the development of OSCC. For the control group; 3 specimens obtained from normal oral mucosa without any inflammatory reaction were used a nd for the experimental group, specimens obtained f rom 18 sub jects of OSCC; 6 subjects from Well differentiated type OSCC; 4 subjects from Moderately differentiated type OSCC; 3 subjects from Poorly differentiated type OSCC; 3 subjects from Verrucous carcinoma: and 2 subjects from C arcinoma in situ were used. All the specimens were embedded in paraffin, sectioned 5 μm or more in thickness, and stained with hematoxylin- eosin. For immunostain, the specimens were incubated with 1;200 diluted primary antibody (anti-survivin monoclonal, Biocare Inc, USA), followed by the secondary antibody(NovoLink Polymer detection system, Novocastra Lab., UK). The bound antibodies were visualized by addition of diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride(DAB) for 30 minutes at room temperature. The specimens were counterstained with Mayerʼs Hematoxylin and mounted. Quantitation of immunoreactivity was performed under the light microscope with the following criteria ; Intensive reaction; +++, Moderate reaction; ++, Minimal reaction; +. Using the image analyzer(Korea Optical System), immunoreactivity of tumor cells in various field was measured and statistically analyzed with SPSS 15.0 Program. The results were as follows: Expression of survivin in OSCC was significantly increased in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of OSCC as compare to those of control group (p<0.05). Expression of survivin in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cells in OSCC is correlated with the cellular malignancy (p<0.05). Expression of survivin in Poorly differentiated type OSCC partly correlated to some extent to cellular malignancy (p<0.05). These results suggest that expression of survivin in OSCC is closely associated with to the development, and malignancy of the OSCC, b ut it is not enough to be used a s a marker f or the c ellular malignancy. Further studies are needed to relate the expression of survivin to cellular malignancy.
The polarizing images of hard tissues including bone and cementum show characteristic features of different birefringence fortheir microstructures. Nevertheless, the clear mechanism of the amplified birefringence under polarizing microscope has not been well understood. We hypothesized that the unique polarized light could be accumulated in the microtubules due to the decreased refractory angle by the inside lower-density matrix, and then the accumulated light in the microtubules could be dispersed brightly. In order to elucidate the polarizing effect on the microtubules, the dentinal tubules in different conditions were observed, and compared with each other to explain their birefringence phenomena. In the decalcified sections of normal tooth, the dentinal tubules located near the pulp chamber showed strong birefringence, while the sclerosed dentinal tubules near the dentino-enamel junction did not show the birefringence. The birefringence was more conspicuous in the longitudinal sectionsof dentinal tubules than in the cross sections. In the decalcified sections of complex odontoma, which produced abnormal and immature dentinal tubules, the birefringence was not observed in the shrunken dentinal tubules filled with dense materials, while the peritubular matrix showed clear birefringence. The birefringence was also observed in the collagen fibers in the connective tissue, and continuously strong in the immature cemental materials containing precollagen fibers. However, the highly mineralized osteodentine did not show the birefringence. Taken together, these data suggest that the microtubules composed ofless-dense matrix than the background tissue, i.e., dentinal tubules, Haversian canals, etc., produce the amplified birefringence by the polarizing light according to the hypothesis of microtubule refraction.
We conducted growth inhibition tests on oral microorganisms using three strains of Lactobacillus spp. which are widely known as their probiotic properties. In these experiments, we measured the number of oral microorganisms after directly contacting lactobacillus with them. In addition, we conducted a similar study using yogurts which are well known as a p robiotic food. I n these yogurts, w e identified t he t ype o f lactobacilli by 1 6s r RN A nucleotide analysis. In o ur study, the growth of most of oral microorganisms were inhibited by lactobacilli, and we also found that yogurts had the highest effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of most of oral microorganisms. The lactobacilli contained in the yogurts were identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus helveticus
Although the sparganosis involving soft tissues, i.e, tongue, cheek, etc., has been frequently reported, the mandibular involvement of sparganosis is not reported up to date. We present a case of intraosseous sparganosis involving whole mandible, which was clinically diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis. After surgical operation of saucerization for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis the removed specimens were pathologically examined and finally turned out intraosseous sparganosis. Radiological findings showed irregular multiple radiolucencies in round to ovoid shape throughout both mandibular body areas, of which peripheral rarefying radiopacity was less remarkable compared to the ordinary osteomyelitis. However, the radiolucencies of periapical granuloma, #34-36, were closely associated with the osteolytic lesions of mandibular body. Pathological examination showed a tunnel like space for the passage of sparganum larva, and heavy infiltration of eosinophilicleukocytes. And more, the parasitic tegument materials were found admixed with eggs in the granulomatous lesion, which were gradually degraded and resolved. Taken together, we presumed that the mandibular inflammatory lesion was primarily involved with sparganosis and secondarily aggravated by the periapical infection of #34-36.