Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is the most common malignancy of oral cavity, and the sixth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. This tumor type is associated with poor prognosis, and most OSCC patients are diagnosed after the cancer has reached an advanced stage. The over expression of NF-κB p65 has been associated with OSCC progression and lymph node metastasis. Hence, the present study analyzed the expression of NF-κB p65 in OSCC from Korean patients. Immunohistochemistry for NF-κB p65 was performed using 12 normal oral mucosas (NOM), 16 oral leukoplakia (with/without dysplasia), and 58 OSCC patients samples. Immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively scored and the correlation between the expression of NF-κB p65 and clinicopathological parameters of OSCC patients was analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that NF-κB p65 expression level increased in oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and OSCC. Moreover, the immunoexpression of NF-κB p65 appeared to be associated with age, recurrence, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis in OSCC patients (p<0.05). These results indicated that NF-κB p65 can play a role as oncogene in OSCC. Moreover, NF-κB p65 may play an important role in both oral carcinogenesis and OSCC patient outcome. It may be considered as another new malignant biomarker of OSCC.
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, was reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activities. Our aim was to investigate the effect of CAPE on apoptosis in cultured human mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) cell line, MC-3. Apoptotic effects of CAPE were measured by cell viability assays, Western blotting, 4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and Live/Dead assay. The result of cell viability assay showed that CAPE displayed a strong growth-inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner against MC-3 cells. Consumption of CAPE resulted in pronounced increase in the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, induced nuclear condensation and fragmentation and clearly increased the number of dead cells in MC-3 cells. CAPE also caused the increase in truncated Bid (t-Bid) and the cleavage of caspase-8 and this phenomenon was regulated by death receptor 5 (DR5). In addition, Phosphorylation of AKT and ERK were downregulated by CAPE. Taken together, these results suggest that CAPE is a potent apoptosis-inducing agent in MC-3 cells.
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of Taekwondo training for 16 weeks on obese elementary school students’ growth hormone and bone mineral density(BMD). The study was conducted on male obese elementary school students who reside in D metropolitan city and have body mass index (BMI) higher than 25%. The whole subject group had no particular diseases and did not regularly exercise more than twice a week. Based on basal movement, low section, Taekwondo gym and form pattern, the Taekwondo train program was composed of total 16 weeks; 4 weeks of introductory phase, 4 weeks of maintenance phase and 4 weeks of improvement phase one and two, respectively. BMD was analyzed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry standard protocol. As a result, growth hormone was not significantly difference in group and exericse effects. In BMD, there was a significant difference between the two groups in BMD lumber spine(LS). In BMD-femur, there was a significant difference in the group (p<0.01) and time (p<0.05). In body composition, there was no statistically significant difference between body mass, body mass index, body fat mass and muscle volume. In conclusion, since 16 weeks of Taekwondo training had a positive effect on elementary students’ metabolic syndrome index, BMD and postural balance. We can deduce that elementary students need constant physical activity for their growth, physical development and physical health.
The carcinogenesis mechanism of human salivary gland adenocarcinoma NOS is poorly understood. MicroRNA155(miRNA155) has been involved in the carcinogenesis of many malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of miRNA155 in tumor growth and invasion of adenocarcinoma NOS. Using SGT cells as a model for adenocarcinoma NOS, cell proliferation was examined by MTT assay after knocking down miRNA155 expression, and cell cycle analysis was performed. Invasive capacity by a Transwell culture assay, and miRNA155 expression in SGT cell line by RT-PCR were examined. In MTT assay, proliferation of SGT-miRNA155 cells was decreased prominently after 96 hrs. Proliferation of SGT cells was markedly inhibited by knocking down miRNA155, resulting from a blockade of cell cycle in the G1 phase, but apoptosis was increased about 4 folds. In adhesion assay, SGT-miRNA155 cells decreased about 60% compared to SGT cells. In invasion assay, inhibition of miRNA155 significantly suppressed the invasive capacity of about 34% SGT cells. mRNA expression of SGT-miRNA155 cells prominently were decreased compared to SGT cells by RT-PCR. It suggested that miRNA155 could play an role in cell cycle progression and invasion in SGT cells, including antitumor effect. These results have provided insights into the carcinogenic mechanisms and new intervention method of salivary gland adenocarcinoma NOS.
Salivary proteins include numerous functional proteins which play important roles not only for the food-intake but also for the protective and defensive mechanisms. In the present study the compositions of salivary proteins were analyzed by different methods, including electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In hydrophobic protein HPLC analysis the parotid saliva gradually produced macromolecular complexes when agitated in refrigerator until 30 minutes. These salivary protein complexes were digested by neuraminidase, and then migrated more rapidly in native tris glycine gel than the control. Therefore, it was assumed that the glycosylated proteins of parotid saliva became gradually aggregated to form salivary protein complexes similar to those of whole saliva. The salivary protein complexes were easily degenerated in different experimental buffers, i.e., SDS buffer, tris glycine buffer, methanol, etc., and resulted non-specific patterns in electrophoresis and HPLC. Therefore, it was presumed that the salivary protein complexes was made by the hydrophobic interaction as well as electrostatic attraction between salivary proteins. These data indicated that to know the real pattern of salivary protein complexes in vivo the whole saliva should be analyzed by HPLC using non-adhering column with isoelectric buffer. Consequently, the whole saliva was analyzed by HPLC using reverse phase SuperoseTM column with 20 mM potassium phosphate buffer, and two prominent peaks of salivary protein complexes were consistently found in every people. These salivary protein complex peaks were relatively stable up to 6 hours after saliva collection when the whole saliva was kept in refrigerator during experiment. Therefore, it is suggested that the salivary protein complex patterns are characteristic macromolecular structures of whole saliva, which are also applicable as a diagnostic point in different saliva-associated diseases
Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) is a rare neoplasm, representing 1.9% to 2.1% of all odontogenic tumors. Peripheral DGCT is a rare tumor with only 25 cases previously described in the English literature. The majority of cases have been reported to occur in the anterior part of the jaws. A rare case of peripheral DGCT is reported, located in the lingual side of the anterior mandible of a 68-year-old man. The patient presented a pedunculated painless growth of 1.5cm in diameter. Radiographically, no bone involvement was found. The lesion was excised and histologically characterized by islands of epithelial cells showing ameloblastoma-like features within fibrous background tissue. Dysplasic dentin and ghost cells with calcifications were frequently observed. Areas showing a connection between tumor cells and the overlying mucosa were also identified.