Genomic imprinting is defined as parent-of-origin expression of specific genes and may play an important role in embryonal development of mammals. Loss of imprinting(LOI), biallelic expression of the imprinted genes, have been observed in a variety of human tumors and syndromes. H19, a paternally imprinted gene, is transcribed as an untranslated RNA that serves as a riboregulator. LOI of H19 is observed in a variety of human malignancies. In this study, LOI of H19 was examined in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas(HNSCCs). Four(28.6%) of the 14 HNSCCs and 8(28.6%) of the 28 inflammatory oral lesions were informative for imprinting analysis of H19. H19 was imprinted in all inflammatory oral lesions, however, 2(50%) of the 4 informative HNSCCs manifested LOI. These data suggest that LOI of the H19 may play a role in the oncogenesis of HNSCC.
Epithelium maintains homeostasis by the signaling balance of growth stimulation and inhibition. Recently, loss of growth inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) on epithelial cells is regarded as a possible mechanism of cancer. Although the genomic mutation in type I and type Ⅱ receptors of TGF-β is considered one of important mechanism of these inactivation, there might be another inactivation mechanism because the mutation rate is relatively low and inhibitory effect is not associated with the mutation. The purpose of this study is evaluating controlling mechanism type Ⅱ receptor of TGF-β by detecting effects of TGF-β on growth inhibition and on expression of cell cycle regulatory protein p21CIP1. Eight cancer cell lines derived from oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) were examined. There was no growth inhibition effects by TGF-β except YD-8 cells. YD-8 cells which showed growth inhibition expresses p21CIP1 by TGF-β whether refractory cell lines, YD-9, did not. All of the tumor cells express mRNA of type Ⅱ receptor by RT-PCR and northern blot analysis, especially on YD-8 and YD-17M. From these results, most of oral cancer cell lines might loose the growth inhibitory effects by TGF-β, and the growth inhibition on YD-8 cells was mediated by expression of p21CIP1.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of cutaneous cellular activities during many oral mucosal diseases. IHOK culture model transfected by E6/E7 genes provide further evidence for the role of HPV in tumorogenesis. It is interesting to investigate cytokine expression of immortalized human oral keratinocyte(IHOK). The purpose of this study were to analysis cytokine mRNA expression levels of NHOK and IHOK by RT-PCR. IHOK showed about 5 fold increases of IL-6 compared with NHOK, while TNF-α was the lowest. It suggested that immortalization of NHOK with E6/E7 could result in elevated expression of IL-6, and IHOK be in the intermediate stage of oral carcinogenesis.
β-catenin is a cytoplasmic protein that participates in the assembly of cell-cell adherens junctions by binding cadherins to the cytoskeleton. In addition, it is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. Activation of this pathway triggers the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, where it activates the transcription of target genes. Abnarmal accumulation of β -catenin is characteristic of polyposis coli(APC) or Axin tumor suppressor proteins, which regulates β-catenin degradation, or activating mutations in β-catenin molecule itself. Here we show that overexpression of Sox4 down-regulates wild type β-catenin in HEK 293 cells. The inhibitory effect of Sox4 on wild type β-catenin is apparently mediated by the ubiquitin- proteasoem system and requires an active glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β). Mutations in the N-terminus of β -catenin(S33Y) which compromise its degradation by the proteasomes or inhibition of GSK3β activity rendered β-catenin resistant to down-regulation by Sox4. In light of recent evidence that Sox4 expression is activated in colon and other tumors with β-catenin dysregulation, our findings suggest that Sox4 is part of a feedback inhibitory pathway for Wnt signaling in normal cells. Moreover, the mutations in APC, Axin or β-catenin in cancer cells appear to render β-catenin resistant to the effects of Sox4 inhibition.
It has been reported that light-emitting diodes(LED) can be used in the treatment of oral diseases. Although bio-stimulatory effects of LED irradiation such as promotion of wound healing have been well known, there are few reports about molecular mechanisms associated with wound healing by LED irradiation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of various extracellular matrix(ECM) molecules in relation to wound healing after LED irradiation on primary human gingival fibroblasts(hGFs) in vitro. The source of light for irradiation was a continuous-wave LED emitting at a wavelength of 635 nm, and manufactured that energy density was 5 mW/cm2 on sample surfaces. The hGFs were irradiated for 1 hour at 37℃ in 5% CO2 humidified chamber. Experimental samples were acquired at 0 (right after irradiation), 24 and 48 hour after irradiation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with wound healing, we examined the mRNA expression of 6 types of collagens, 7 types of matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and 4 types of tissue inhibition of metalloproteinases(TIMPs) after LED irradiation by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of collagen 4, MMP-3, 9, and 16, and TIMP-3 was influenced by LED irradiation. Generally, the collagen expression of the irradiation group was slightly increased, particularly collagen 4 was significantly increased at 0 hour. The expression of MMP-3 was increased at 0 and 24 hours and MMP-16 was increased at 24 hours, respectively. The expression of MMP-9 was decreased at 0 hour and increased at 24 and 48 hours. The mRNA expression of TIMP-3 was significantly decreased at 24 and 48 hours after irradiation. These results suggest that the altered expression of ECM molecules after LED irradiation may contribute to the accelerated wound healing.
This experiment was performed to study the biocompatibility of xenograft materials (ABBM. coralline HA). Both autogenous bone grafts and allogenic banked bone were frequently and successfully used to promote regeneration of parts of skeleton. The use of these types of grafts were limited by the cost of donor site operation for autogenous boneor by fear of the risk of infection of allogenic materials. Another type of graft is xenograft which include ABBM and coralline HA. For investigating the biocompatibility, generally many investigators used cancer cell lines or animal cell lines. But cancer cell lines and animal cell lines had functioned different metabolism from normal human cell. So the experiment used normal human osteoblast for compare the biocompatibility of ABBM with coralline HA which were fixed in 24 well base contained culture medium. After 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 28th days, the culture medium were taken out and checked the concentrations ofcalcium( Ca), inorganic phosphate(IP) and alkaline phosphatase(ALP). In another method, histologic samples were investigated after 8weeks of xenograft materials implantated on rabbit's tibia, the bone was cut and made undecalcified ground samples and checked with fluorecent microscope, polarizing microscope, reflection electron microscope and electron probe microanalysis. The statistical results of concentrations (Ca, IP, ALP) of materials in the culture medium have decreasedby day's, which meant that xenograft materials were effective for bone remodelling. The concentrations in the culture medium of ABBM were lower than that of coralline HA, that meant that biocompatibility of ABBM were superior than that of coralline HA. Histologic samples showed that ABBM had better bone remodelling effect than coralline HA. ABBM showed good alizarin red marking lines, more deposition of Ca, IP, and dense color of bone around newly formed osteon and bone trabeculae. it was concluded that ABBM was more biocompatible than corallineHA in vivo and in vitro test