In the previous study it was demonstrated that most of sialolith contained bacterial colonies in their center of calcified laminated capsules1). Although it is still not determined whether the bacterial infection is a major pathogenic cause or not, many authors reported that the bacterial vegetation in sialolith can cause chronic suppurative inflammation in salivary gland. Actually a lot of different bacteria were found in oral cavity, most of them are non-pathogenic as normal flora, and only some of them are pathogenic for different mucosal infectious diseases. However, this study was aimed to identify a causative bacterial strain for the sialolith formation in human salivary gland. A strain of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis ) was found in the culture of sialolith, which was known to be a normal flora related to the fermentation of various Korean bean foods. In vitro culture experiment of B. subtilis it abundantly produced the thick biofilm aggregated around their cells and colony structure, which were subsequently attached on the surface of hydroxyapatite( HA) beads in scanning electronmicroscope(SEM) observation. The bacterial adherence on HA beads was strongest in the culture of B. subtilis, followed by Streptococcus mutans (Str. mutans ), oral mixed bacteria, and lactobacillus. Therefore, B. subtilis might be an important causative microorganism for the sialolithiasis in Korean people, and it is suggested that postmeal oral hygiene care should be required to reduce the number of normal flora, B. subtilis, after eating of fermented bean foods.
β-phenylethyl isothiocyanate(PEITC) is a component derived from cruciferous vegetables and has been demonstrated to fight many types of cancers through various molecular pathways. In the present study, we focused on its effect on the induction of apoptotic cell death to inhibit cell growth and its molecular mechanism in HSC-4 human oral cancer cells. A colorimetric MTS assay was used to examine cell viability. The apoptotic effect and was investigated using DAPI staining and the molecular target and mechanism of PEITC-mediated apoptosis were determined by Western blotting. The result showed that PEITC inhibited oral cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis via extrinsic signaling pathway evidenced by the activation of caspase 8, truncation of bid protein and induction of death receptor(DR) 5. DR5 protein level was increased through the activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK). These results from this study strongly suggest that DR5 is a potential molecular target for PEITC-induced apoptosis in oral cancer via p38 and JNK.
Plasminogen activator(PA) system such as urokinase plasminogen activator(uPA), urokinase PA Receptor(uPAR), tissue, tissue PA, and PA inhibitor-1&2(PAI-1&2) play a role in tumor invasion, metastasis, and proliferation. It is interested that these factors in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma(Oral SCC) will be evaluated and correlated with clinicopathologic variables. Recently, these expression of primary oral SCC has been restricted to clinical or immunohistochemical study such in vivo study. The purpose of this study were to investigate the mRNA expression and cytologic concentration of uPA, uPAr, tPA, and PAI-1,2 in oral SCC cell lines compared to NHOK and to apply these results to evaluate early detection biomarkers of oral SCC in future. All the cell lines(NHOK, HN 4 and SCC 25) were cultured under KBM bullet kit at 37℃ in a 5% CO2 incubator. We studied a possible association between mRNA expression and cytosolic concentrations of uPA, uPAR, tPA, and PAI-1,2 in oral SCC cell lines compared to NHOK using RT-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA) method. uPA mRNA expression was about 5-6 folds, while uPAR was a bout 3 f olds, and PAI-1 was about 1 .5-1.6 f olds. PAI-2 was a bout1.2 -1.3 f olds t han that o f NHOK, w hile t PA w as l ower t han that of NHOK. uPA cytosolic concentrations was about 15-19 folds, while uPAR was about 8 folds, and PAI-1 was about 3-4.5 folds. PAI-2 was about 2 folds than that of NHOK, while tPA was lower than that of NHOK. Both uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1,2 cytologic concentrations were correlated with mRNA expression of oral SCC cell lines. From the aboving results, high cytosolic concentrations of uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 & 2 were correlated with mRNA expression. It suggested that these might be specific markers for oral SCC cell lines and these results would be contributed to evaluate early detection biomarkers for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.
For investigate intracellular function and role of genes in the biological processes, various gene delivery methods into cell have been developed. Many studies performed to construct optimum conditions of gene delivery into cells and tissues. In this study, we examined efficiency of gene delivery-complexed with cationic lipid vector in human cancer cell lines. GFP plasmids were complexed with cationic lipid and transfected into human cancer cell lines at different concentrations. And then, expression of GFP was analysed with fluorescent microscope and FACS. To determine efficiency of gene delivery, we investigated GFP expression level in various cancer cell lines. GFP expression cells were not shown in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and lung carcimona cell line A549 after 24hr transfection, while, GFP expression cells were observed at 500ng concentration after 48hr transfection. In colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT116, GFP expression cells were observed at 100ng and 500ng concentrations after 24hr transfection and slightly increased at 48hr. After transfection into ovary adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV3, we could found that many cells expressed GFP at 500ng concentration after 24hr and highly elevated GFP expression cells after 48hr. For further evaluate gene expression level, we confirmed GFP expression level by using FACS analysis after 48hr transfection. As a result, HepG2 was expressed GFP in very low level at 10ng, 100ng, and 500ng concentrations. We also identified that GFP was expressed low level at 10ng and 100ng in HCT116 and A549, but highly increased at 500ng concentration to 14.19% and 16.57%, respectively. In case of SKOV3, GFP expression was highly elevated to 13.14% at 100ng and 58.10% at 500ng compared with 10ng transfection. By Comparing efficiency of gene expression among cancer cell lines, GFP expression was similar with cell lines at 10ng transfection, but significantly differed from cell lines at 500ng higher concentration. Additionally, GFP expression level of SKOV3 was showed about 10 fold higher than HepG2, and about 4 fold higher than HCT116 and A549 at 500ng. These results demonstrated that efficiency of gene delivery-complexed with cationic lipid vector was the highest in SKOV3, while HepG2 was showed the lowest efficiency. Taken together, we could determined that efficiency of gene delivery into cells differed from each human cancer cell lines. Our study suggest that cellular properties should be considered in gene delivery-complexed with cationic lipid vector to improve cellular expression efficiency of gene.
The osteoblastic activity of carcinoma is restricted in osteoblastic metastasis, common in the patients with prostate cancer, whereas its mechanism and the factors involved are unknown. Here, we present a case of central adenocarcinoma showing the osteoblastic activity in the mandible of the 80-year-old Korean male who had suffered from the paresthesia of lower lip during four mouths. Clinically the overlying oral epithelium was intact, but the radiologic images revealed the ill-defined radiolucent intraosseous lesions in left ascending ramus. Microscopically, the mandibular lesion was composed with carcinoma of ductal or glandular differentiation but lack typical features of any epithelial salivary gland malignancies. Intriguingly abundant new bone formation was found in the stroma, but the tumor cells expressed no reactivity for prostate-specific antigen(PSA). The patient had low ionized calcium level, normal serum alkaline phosphatase and PSA level. Positron emission tomography-computed tomopraphy scan revealed the benign prostatic hyperplasia, but failed to trace the primary site of tumor other than mandible. Therefore, pathologically diagnosis for the lesion was informed as adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified(NOS). Because occult primary tumor associated with osteoblastic metastasis cannot be completely ruled out, periodic and careful check-ups for the patient should be performed.
A rare case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma(PISCC) arising from lining epithelium of a dentigerous cyst is described. The case occurred at the left mandibular 3rd molar region in a 56-year-old Japanese woman. Clinical observation revealed cyst formation with an impacted 3rd molar, a common finding in dentigerous cyst, in the left mandible. Histopathologically, the lining epithelium of the cyst demonstrated transition from epithelial dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma(SCC). This case was diagnosed as PISCC arising from lining epithelium of a dentigerous cyst.