Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. MMP-8 has been reported to be involved in the degradation of collagen in progression of dental caries. MMP-13 was found to be expressed in both normal and caries pulp, implying its involvement in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Methods: Four extracted teeth were used. They were categorized into four grades according to caries progression. Three sections were prepared from each separated crown and root. Immunofluorescence of the FITC of the MMP-8 and 13 in coronal and radicular dentin was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Results: Immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-8 were observed both in radicular and coronal dentin in the sound, C1 and C3 carious teeth. In C2 carious teeth, immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-8 were observed only in radicular dentin. Immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-13 were observed both in radicular and coronal dentin in the sound teeth. In C1, C2 and C3 carious teeth, immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-13 were not observed both in radicular and coronal dentin. Conclusion: Immunofluorescence signals revealed that MMP-8 and 13 were present in coronal and radicular dentin, and was differently expressed as caries progressed.
Human DEK gene on chromosome 6p encodes a 43kD nuclear phospoprotein that was originally identified as part of a fusion protein found in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia carrying a t(6;9) translocation. Although DEK upregulation has been described in a number of human malignancies and was significantly associated with high histologic grade, lymph node metastasis and/or advanced clinical stage, no previous report has evaluated the expression of DEK protein and its clinical significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our aims were to determine DEK expression in tissue samples of normal oral mucosa and OSCC by immunohistochemistry, to analyze the correlation between DEK expression and clinicopathological parameters, and to evaluate the value of DEK as a prognostic marker for patient’s survival. Ten normal oral mucosa, 10 epithelial dysplasia, and 60 OSCC samples were studied by immunohistochemistry. DEK expression tended to increase through the full thickness of epithelium in the dysplastic mucosa when compared with those in normal oral mucosa. High expression of DEK protein (score ≥ 2) was found in 68.3% of OSCC cases. Statistical analysis revealed that DEK overexpression in OSCC was positively correlated with high histologic grade (p=0.001), lymph node metastasis (p=0.003), and advanced clinical stage (p=0.039). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, DEK overexpression was significantly associated with decreased overall survival in patients with OSCC (p=0.019). Our results suggest that DEK overexpression may be a reliable marker to predict the clinical outcome in OSCC.
Halitosis is a bad odor in mouth. The etiology of halitosis is multifactorial including intra-oral and extra-oral causes. It affects social interactions in many people. The aim of this study is to investigate an association between recognition group and non-recognition group by evaluating halitosis level and systemic factors. Nineteen participants who visited Department of Periodontology of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were enrolled. Volatile sulfur a compounds (VSCs) were measured by Oral ChromaⓇ, a questionnaire was requested and oral exam was carried out in all subjects. Female is more sensitive than male for oral malodor. VSCs level of hydrogen sulfide(H2S) and methyl mercaptan(CH3SH) in male is higher than that in female. Participants who gave appeal dry mouth seem to recognize halitosis.
Along with toothbrushes, toothpaste has been used for a long time to improve the personal oral hygiene. Toothpaste was firstly introduced to Korea through as a form of powder by the Japanese company Lion Corporation in 1889 and in 1954, the LakHee Chemistry company released Korea’ s first ever tube type cream toothpaste called lucky toothpaste, and afterwards we got to where we are today in terms of toothpaste. As a variety of products are released and customer choices become more diverse, there needs to be a development of toothpaste that can fulfill customers’ needs and requests. Therefore, this study analyzes toothpastes and related patents submitted to the Patent Office from 1962 to June 2015, thereby examining the changes in toothpaste development trends up to the present day. This study was searched using the keyword ‘toothpaste’ in the patent, utility model search engine at Kipris(www.kipris.or.kr), a patent search site, and categorized a total of 2,465 patents, which excluded those rejected by the Patent Office and those unrelated to toothpaste, using titles, full texts of publications and announcements. Research results showed that in the past, from 1960 to 1989, patents related to toothpaste containers took up the highest ratio of 35%. However, after 1990, patents pertaining to toothpaste composites and functionality made up the highest percentage of 54%, and from 2010 to 2015, it occupied 72% of the whole; therefore, we analyzed in detail the patents related to composites and functionality. Taking a look at the objectives and effects of patents having to do with composites and functionality, we found out that from 1964 to June 2015, patents related to Base, a basic component of toothpaste, and those having to do with periodontal disease took up the highest percentages of 25% each, and from 2010~2015 in particular, patents concerning periodontal diseases were submitted 3% more than those about Base. Composites aiming to prevent and treat periodontal diseases can be divided into four different categories, based on components; among those, there were a total of 171 (57%) patents related to living organism and herbal medicine extracts, 107 (36%) patents using compounds, 16 (5%) patents using bamboo salt as well as salt, and 5 (2%) patents using mineral components such as gold, silver. Looking at these investigation results, it can be thought that with the increasing development of toothpaste related to periodontal diseases, there’ s a great amount of interest about toothpaste of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment purposes. Along with this, we thought that research about how effective periodontal disease toothpastes actually are is also necessary.
The basic instrument for oral hygiene is toothbrush. Many patents that are announced to enhance efficiency and convenience by changing shape and using new material. There are also patents regarding its various functions. This study, the purpose of study, was surveyed the toothbrush patents from 2005 to 2014. The patent search was done in site 'kipris' using keyword ‘toothbrush’. Among sorts of administrative measure, enrollment and extinction patents was searched, followed by classified patents into its shape, materials, function and electronic toothbrush. For the patents with function, detailed analysis was done. Total numbers of toothbrush patents decreased in 2006 to 2008, lowest in 2008, and steadily increased to 2014. The patents regarding shape was outnumbered material. Shape and material patents could be divided by handle portion and head portion patents, which patents of head portion is more than handle portion. The patents of function could be classified into certain situation or combinate functions to its natural function. Function patents increase with the ratio of total patents. For brush patents, they have a tendence of increase. In addition, from a shape and function, toothbrush patents going to be more variable. It choose small quantity batch production. From a shape of toothbrush, patents regarding head portion are going to increase. And it has a tendency to change the shape rather than the development of materials for efficiency of toothbrushing. Electronic toothbrush will be placed certain position, however, conventional toothbrush also will place large portion by estimating patent number and there be more progressive. Some patents will catch popularity like combination of brush and paste, replacement of brush head, attraction for toothbrushing, and hygiene tooth brush. Also disposable toothbrush and portable toothbrush are getting popularity along with social phenomenon.
It is necessary to make preventive method for the trauma and disturbance complications of orofacial area because athletic trauma are physical and mental defects. Since 1913, an italian boxer discussed mouth guard with dentist and used it. It was reported that mouth guard from field prevented trauma, increased the muscle force and activated electromyogram although the history of mouth guard wearing was short. The mouth guard has prevented the trauma and also increased the muscle force. The purpose was to study muscle force and activity of EMG with mouth guard wearing. It concluded that mouth could prevent trauma and increase the muscle force
An 81-years-old woman presented multiple mucosa ulcers with a chief complaint of pain during wearing the lower denture. She had been wearing upper and lower complete dentures for five months, and received multiple drugs for the treatment of angina pectoris, constipation, neurosis, hypertension and arthritis (calcium channel blockers, furosemide, captopril, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and penicillamine, respectively), but no history of immune-diseases and viral infection symptom. The present lesion was primarily diagnosed as traumatic ulcer, candidiasis and lichen planus in the clinical observation, thereby conservatively treated with denture relining, antifungal agent, and steroidal agent. However, the ulcer lesion was not healed for two months and rather increased in size. With the diagnosis of viral infection the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of IL28 and E6, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 primer sets was done but entirely showed negative reaction. Therefore, with the patient’s medical history and IHC findings exhibiting strong positive reaction of CD3 and CD28, but rare/weak reaction of NFkB, CD20, IgK and p38, the ulcer lesion was finally diagnosed as drug-induced pemphigoid ulceration which was not an inflammatory granulomatous lesion but related to the retrogressive acantholytic degeneration of epithelial cells caused by multiple drug abuse.