Styela clava (SC), a sea squirt has a biphasic life cycle, showed the animal phase during larval life and the vegetable phase during adult life. The adult SC becomes fixed on hard surface and covered with thick cellulose membrane to protect itself from various physical and chemical damages in marine environment. Especially, adult SC forms a huge cystic space as a portion of digestive tract, filled with seawater containing various planktons. In the present study, it is hypothesized that SC can produce secretory materials, like saliva in mammals, to sterilize, to neutralize, and to digest the cystic fluid. First of all, the cyst fluid was examined for the antimicrobial property by bacteria killing assay (BKA) using E. coli, and it resulted that the cyst fluid showed relatively weak bactericidal effect. The cyst fluid was also examined for antioxidant property by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-3-ethybenzthiazdine-6-sulphonic acid) assay, and resulted that the cyst fluid showed strong antioxidant effect comparable to ascorbic acid. The antioxidant materials of cyst fluid were found both in cationic and anionic groups separated by ion exchange column using SP and Q beads, and they were also heat resistant. The strong antioxidant property seems to be originated from the abundant carotenoid materials in the cyst fluid of SC. However, the strong antioxidant materials of the cyst fluid may play a role for the essential antioxidant in the digestive tract of SC. Furthermore, the cyst fluid of SC was examined using SNU-1 cancer cells for its anticancer property. The flow cytometry analysis showed that both of cationic and anionic materials purified from the cyst fluid showed strong anticancer effect on SNU-1 cells. Taken together, the cyst fluid of SC showed weak antimicrobial, but strong antioxidant property and marked anticancer properties in vitro experiment. Therefore, it is presumed that SCs can neutralize the various free radicals of seawater and also protect themselves from carcinogenic impacts in aggressive marine environment by various bioactve substances of their cyst fluid.
In this study, we investigated the effect of bisphosphonate on the osteoblastic differentiation of human dental stem cells (hDPSCs). In the first experiment, we evaluated the effect of bisphosphonate on the differentiation of hDPSCs into osteoblasts by alkaline phosphatase staining after culturing hDPSCs. As a result, on day 13, the osteogenic differentiation of hDPSC was suppressed at 5 μM in clodronate and 2 μM in zolendronate. In NBP, osteogenic differentiation is more suppressed. In second experiment, cytotoxicity and proliferation test, the cell proliferation (examined by MTT assay) was more suppressed as the concentrations of zolendronate were larger than those of alendronate and clodronate. Western blotting, a third experiment, was found that AKT phosphorylation was inhibited in cell signaling proteins involved in cell proliferation inhibition and death by bisphosphonate concentration. In human dental stem cells, bisphosphonates inhibit osteoblast differentiation, and this phenomenon is clearly observed in NBPs (zolendronate), and it has been found that it is related to AKT phosphorylation of cell signaling proteins.
Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. About 80-90% of pleomorphic adenoma occurs in the parotid gland and about 5-10% of them occur in the submandibular gland and sublingual gland. The rest proportion comprises the minor salivary glands. The palate is the most common area, followed by the lips and the cheeks. Pleomorphic adenoma of the submandibular gland shows clinically a slow-growing, painless mass found on submandibular aspect. In this case report, we report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the right submandibular gland in a 63-year old female patient who was referred from the department of neurosurgery, due to the heterogenous mass detected by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
The odontoma is a hamartomatous lesion consisting of enamel, dentin, pul and cementum. They are observed in the form of a tooth or as a mass of agglomerated teeth. Most of these occur during the period of development of normal teeth and grow to some extent. The fused tooth was the developmental abnormality of the teeth and the hard tissues of the adjacent teeth were combined. In general, these two lesions are not related, but two problems can occur together with systemic or local causes in the morphological differentiation period. We report a case of a 6 - year - old boy who visited our clinic for the eruption of a calcified mass in the mouth. The patient was diagnosed by the fusion of a odontoma and a mandibular permanent anterior tooth. And then, fused odontoma was removed surgically and the mandibular permanent anterior was restored by using composite resin. Calcified material was diagnosed as a composite tooth. After 6 months, the permannant teeth was satisfactory eruption and did not show any pathological problems in periapical radiography.
The most common benign salivary gland tumor is pleomorphic adenoma. It affects major and minor salivary glands. Minor salivary gland tumors constitute <20% of all salivary gland neoplasms. Most minor salivary gland tumors occur on the palate. We present the case of a patient with pleomorphic adenoma that developed at a rare intraoral location. This patient presented to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Seoul National University Dental Hospital.
There are many case reports about cysts within the bones of the jaws associated with impacted third molars. When osmotic pressure is introduced into a cyst, the cyst expands and displaces the third molar. If continuity of cyst wall is lost, cystic expansion cannot occur, and the cyst cannot displace the third molar. This study analyzed four cases of pathologic migration of the third molar in ruptured cystic lesions that had formed bone tunnels and intraoral fistulas to identify the causes and factors contributing to this migration. Authors hypothesized that closure of fistulas repeated generation of pressure, it may temporarily increase the osmotic pressure within a cyst that has lost its continuity, causing displacement of the third molar. A cyst that has lost its continuity due to fistula formation within the oral cavity can cause ectopic displacement of the adjacent impacted teeth.
Canalicular adenoma is an uncommon, benign salivary gland tumor. It has a significant predilection for occurrence in the minor salivary glands, with most cases occurring in the upper lip, followed by the buccal mucosa and palate. Rarely, canalicular adenoma can involve the major salivary glands, such as the parotid gland. Only a small number of cases of canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of canalicular adenoma on the left parotid gland of an 81-year-old man, and present a review of the literature.