Amino acid transporters are essential for the growth and proliferation in all living cells. Among the amino acid transporters, the system L amino acid transporters are the major nutrient transport system responsible for the Na+-independent transport of neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is over-expressed to support cell growth in malignant tumors. The double stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) analysis can be in a wide variety of eukaryotes to induce the sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. In this study, we examined the effect of LAT1 short interfering RNA (siRNA) on cell growth using siRNA of LAT1 in the KB human oral squamous cell carcinoma. In the RT-PCR analysis and western blot analysis, the siRNA of LAT1 inhibited expressions of LAT1 mRNA and protein. The uptake of [14C]L-leucine was inhibited by siRNA of LAT1. In the MTT assay, the siRNA of LAT1 inhibited the growth of the KB cells in the time-dependent manner, indicating that the growth inhibition of KB cell by the siRNA of LAT1 is induced by the blocking of neutral amino acid transport mediated by LAT1. These results suggest that the transport of neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids into the KB human oral squamous cell carcinoma is mediated mainly by LAT1. Further, the LAT1 would be a new target for the inhibition of cancer cell growth.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the 1st most common malignancy in oral and maxillofacial area. HPV 16 has been strongly linked to progression of cervical carcinoma. E6 and E7 as a small DNA virus encoding two major oncoproteins of HPV 16 can act together to produce efficient immortalization of primary human epithelial cells. Thus it is important to pursue the development of Immortalized human oral keratinocyte(IHOK) culture model which could be related to the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. If we establish IHOK transfected by E6/E7 genes, IHOK will be accepted as a model system for HPV-linked oral carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study were to culture primary normal human oral keratinocyte(NHOK), and to establish IHOK for studying oral carcinogenesis in the future. NHOK was primarily cultured under normal culture condition, and transformed into IHOK by transfection of E6/E7 genes. After 100 passages depend on Ca++ condition, cultured IHOK was confirmed by growth curve, cornified cell envelope measurement, TGase 1activity, mRNA detection, tumorogenecity and anchorage independence assay. After 100 passages, cultured IHOK showed most basal cell and monolayer of polyhedral cells under 0.15mM Ca++, and small area of stratification and flattened epithelial cells with irregular border under 1.2mM Ca++. The cultured IHOK showed relatively resistant growth under high calcium condition. The E6/E7 mRNA was detected in cultured IHOK by RT-PCR. During the terminal differentiation in cultured IHOK, increased insoluble cornified cell envelope formation was accompanied with induction of TGase 1 activity. But the cultured IHOK showed less CEM and TGase 1 activity than those of cultured NHOK. Cultured IHOK showed non-tumorogenecity, but slight anchorage independence. We had developed a technique to transform NHOK into IHOK by transfection of E6/E7 genes. Cultured IHOK was established as intermediate stage cell to study the pathogenesis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma.
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is that soft, specialized connective tissue situated between the cementum covering the root of the tooth and bone forming the socket wall. The PDL is a connective tissue particularly well adapted to its principal function, supporting the teeth in their sockets and at the same time permitting them to withstand the considerable force of mastication. During the life time, PDL is usually exposed to mechanical stress by mastication. However, little is known about the gene which is related to the mechanical stress in PDL. UNC-50 (PDLs22) was identified and isolated from D. melanogater and C. elegance. This gene was also regulated in sensory bristle for mechanotransduction in D. melanogaster. In this study, to uncover the relationship between UNC-50 and mechanical stress, we induced the mechanical stress by medium displacement in cementoblast cell line. After mechanical stress induction UNC-50 expression was analyzed by RT-PCR, Real-time PCR, and western analysis. The expression of UNC-50 was increased after medium displacement of cementoblast in vitro. Collagen type I, type III, and osteonection mRNAs were also strongly expressed after mechanical stress induction. The results of this study suggest that UNC-50 might responsible for molecular event in PDL inducing cementoblast under mechanical stress.
Immuno-MemBlot is a technique for detecting, analyzing, and identifying proteins, similar to the Western blot technique but differing in that protein samples are not separated electrophoretically but are spotted through circular or slot templates directly onto the membrane. Recently we developed a new Immuno-MemBlot (IMB) method applying immunoreactions and coloring procedures directly in the wells of MemBlot apparatus, which were connected by canals to perform drainage for reagent application and buffer irrigation. This IMB method was designed to get theimmunoblot results more rapidly and clearly than the previous immunoblot ones. This study is aimed to evaluate the analytical accuracy of IMB using different biological assay. In the sensitivity test of IMB the monoclonal antibody can clearly detect the 30 ng (about 12 pM) of Mucocidin peptide (35 mer), and is also available to detect at least 10 ng (about 4 pM) of Mucocidin peptide (35 mer). The IMB was effective in the quantitative analysis of methothrexate (MTX) assay for cellular apoptosis. And more, this IMB is useful to screen large number of specific samples with ease and accuracy in a short time. In the screenings for the presence of Mucocidin in saliva the quantitative comparison is conspicuous among 48 persons depend on the different conditions ofgender, drinking and smoking habits, and oral diseases. Therefore, it is presumed that, even though the target proteins were partly degraded, a specific epitope can be detected if a monoclonal antibody was still reactive. Conclusively, these data suggest that the IMB can be useful in the primary qualitativeand quantitative analysis of proteins in various fluids, i.e., blood, saliva, tear, urine, etc.
In order to investigate stresses of dental patients in dental clinic by dental-analogous stimulations, we selected 23 women and 36 men who are students of dental college in D university. This experiment was performed to compare and analyze the changes of Galvanic skin resistance and heart rate by dental-analogous stimulations. In paired t-test of male group's GSR average, there were significant differences between sound and touch, and among pain and other stimulations. And in paired t-test of female group's GSR average, there were significant differences among pain and other stimulations. In paired t-test of male group's heart rate average, there were significant differences between vision and pain, and between touch and pain. And in paired t-test of female group's heart rate average, there were significant differences between smell and pain. In unpaired t-test of male and female group's GSR average, there were no significant differences in smell, sound, vision, touch, and pain. In unpaired t-test of male and female group's heart rate average, there were no significant differences in smell, sound, vision, touch, and pain. It seemed that stresses during dental treatment could be changed by surrounding circumstances and sex distinction.
Angiosarcoma is an extremely rare sarcoma arising from oral mucosa. We report a case of angiosarcoma in the right maxillary gingiva causing excessive bleeding. The lesion exhibited typical histologic features of angiosarcoma, showing infiltrative proliferation of polygonal endothelial cells and arborizing blood vessels. Tumor cells showed expression of CD 31 and factor VIII, but no expression of CD 34 antigen. The patient expired due to severe bleeding in the oral cavity.