The Hippo pathway was originally discovered in Drosophila by genetic screening and it has been shown to be conserved in various organisms including human. Until now, the essential roles of Hippo pathway in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and organ size control is extensively studied. Currently, Mats1/2 (Mob1a/1b), one of the important components in Hippo pathway, mutant mice were generated which has abnormal phenotype such as resistance to apoptosis and spontaneous tumorigenesis. Of note, Mats1/2 mutant mice also showed dental malocclusion. Therefore, in this study, we have evaluated the bone phenotype of Mats1/2 mutant mice. Although the mRNA expressions of Mats1 or Mats2 were observed in both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, the increase of Mats1 level was most prominent during osteoblastogenesis. The RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) was unaltered upon Mats1/2 mutation; however, the osteoblast differentiation using calvarial pre-osteoblasts was significantly reduced in Mats1/2 mutant mice compare to that of wild type mice. In accordance with in vitro results, Mats1/2 mutant mice showed decreased bone volume as well as increased trabecular separation in μCT analyses. These results may provide novel prospect of the probable linkage between Hippo pathway and bone homeostasis.
Natural products are vastly utilized as a source of chemotherapeutic agents for human cancers. Kochia scopraia is traditionally used for the cure of urological and dermatological diseases. Recently, methanol extract of Kochia scoparia (MEKS) has been shown to have anti-cancer activity to various human cancers. However, there is no report demonstrating the anti-cancer activity of MEKS in human mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) cells. In this study, the authors studied the effects of MEKS on the cell proliferation and underlying mechanism in YD15 human MEC cells. MEKS decreased YD15 cell proliferation proven by trypan blue exclusion assay and induced apoptosis, evidenced by cell cycle analysis and western blotting. Autophagy induction by MEKS was verified by western blotting. In addition, MEKS regulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated p38 and Nrf2 protein. This results can imply that MEKS might be a potential candidate for the treatment of human MEC cells.
Extranodal intraoral Hodgkin lymphoma is not common. We report the case of a 78-year-old male patient with ulcer of the mandibular oral mucosa that was not cured for about 3 weeks. In biopsy and histopathologic examination, it was found to be extranodal intraoral Hodgkin lymphoma. Early diagnosis of oral lesions led to early detection of lesions of the opposite neck lymph node in an additional PET-CT scan. We report this case and review relevant literature.
The supernumerary tooth which is extra tooth in comparison to normal dentition is one of the developmental problems. The most common type of supernumerary tooth is mesiodens which may cause several complications like delayed eruption, crowding, spacing et al. Moral Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) describes the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars that associated frequently with affected incisors. We report a case of a 6 – year – old boy who visited our clinic for removal of mesiodentes. The patient was diagnosed by mesiodentes and MIH by clinical examination and radiographic examination. Under local anesthesia, Mesiodentes were removed surgically. The demarcated opacities, a feature of MIH, were observed in the removed mesiodentes. After removal of mesiodentes, the maxillary central incisors erupted normally and in order to manage the teeth affected MIH, follow-up and fluoride varnish application were done every 3 months.
A 31 years old female had been suffered from a bony swelling in right premolar region of the mandible for 12 years, recently grown rapidly. A fistula tract developed on the right anterior mandibular border, but the lesion was relatively asymptomatic. In the radiological examination, the tumor mass was irregularly mixed with radiolucent and radiopaque areas, forming multiple cystic spaces. Under the diagnosis of calcifying odontogenic cyst, the mandibular mass was resected and examined pathologically. After decalcification, the dissected tumor mass showed multiple small cystic spaces and calcifying fibrous tissue, mimicking calcifying odontogenic cyst or ameloblastoma. Histological observation showed many calcifying cementoid materials and ossifying trabeculae. The cystic spaces were turned out to be dilated vascular channels lined by endothelial cells, containing plasma fluid. However, the main lesion was diagnosed as cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF), and the atypical vascular channels were greatly dilated and gradually expanded the whole tumor mass. The present COF was examined through immunohistochemical (IHC) array, and investigated for tumor cell characteristics, exhibiting abnormal ossification and aneurysmal cystic changes. IHC array disclosed that the tumor cells grew progressively in the lack of apoptosis, and that they showed lower expression of RUNX2 than BMP-2, RANKL, and OPG, and increases of protein expression in HIF-1α, VEGF-A, and CMG2. These data suggested that the reduced expression of RUNX2, osteoblast differentiation factor, be relevant to abnormal ossification of COF, and that the consistent expressions of angiogenesis factors be relevant to de novo angiogenesis in COF, subsequently resulted in aneurysmal cystic changes.
Differential diagnosis of the malignant lesion and the benign lesion is critically important for the precise treatment. A clinician should diagnose in a comprehensive manner considering clinical, radiological, and histopathological perspectives. The lesion in the oral cavity in this study was clinically and radiologically malignant. However, the lesion was histopathologically benign. Surgical intervention was not performed except biopsy. The lesion improved after about one month of supportive medication after the biopsy. The importance of decision making process was emphasized in this report.