Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism that works for the survival of cells under various physiological and pathological conditions. ATG5 is a key protein in the process of autophagy propagation and is involved in tumor development and progression. Chemotherapeutic agents targeting ATG5 enhance the host's immune response in various human cancers and intensify the effectiveness of chemotherapy. However, the physiological role of ATG5 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been fully recognized. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between clinico-pathological factors of OSCC patients and ATG5 immunoexpression through immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of OSCC patients treated at our hospital, and to analyze the regarding influences and their mechanisms. The authors analyzed 20 OSCC patients from National University Dental Hospital, at Pusan National University from January 2002 to December 2007, which were eligible for the study. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the OSCC patients, and ATG5 immunoexpression was obtained using IHC staining in the tissue samples of the OSCC patients. In the tissue sample of OSCC patients, the immunoexpression of ATG5 elevated, in comparison to the normal oral mucosa, and there was a significant correlation with Drinking, Pathological Stage. In regards to Cox regression analysis, Clinical stage, Tumor size, Histopathologic grade, Cervical nodal metastasis, Loco-regional recurrence, and ATG5 expression have statistically significant correlations. These results imply that the changes in the expression of ATG5 proteins in OSCC can be a prominent factor in the OSCC progression and the prognosis of OSCC patients.
Human melatonin receptors consist of melatonin receptor 1A (MT1) and melatonin receptor 1B (MT2), and possess various biological activations, which include the control of circadian rhythm and immune regulation. Recently, it have been found that melatonin receptors inhibit cell proliferation and have oncostatic properties, which is being researched in the treatment strategies of breast cancer, prostate cancer, and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Also, interest in the effect of melatonin receptor’s correlation to head and neck carcinogenesis and application possibilities on head and neck cancer has been found. However, in head and neck cancer, how melatonin receptor relates and functions with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays a major role in human carcinogenesis, is yet unknown. In this research, in HSC5 cell and YD15 cell, the head and neck cancer cell lines, a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, Luzindole, was utilized to examine the effect of melatonin receptors on EMT. After treating Luzindole on HSC5 cells and YD15 cells, the authors evaluated cell viability rate with CCK 8 assay, and performing colony forming assay, invasion assay and western blot analysis, to confirm melatonin receptor’s effect on EMT. When Luzindole was treated on HSC5 cells and YD15 cells in low concentration of 100nM, no significant difference in cell viability was found, whereas Luzindole-treated cells had a significantly increase in the invasion assay. As a result of colony forming assay, in YD15 cells, the number of colony formation decreased slightly, whereas in HSC3 cells, the number of colony formation increased. According to the western blotting, no difference in E-cadherin, Slug, and vimentin protein expression was shown. This result of research indicates the possibility of melatonin receptor being related to EMT and new chemotherapeutic target in the carcinogenesis of head and neck cancer.
One of the most demanded competencies of an oral health professional such as an oral pathologist is the ability to make clinical decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine the neurological differences between beginners and experts in the clinical decision-making process which consisting of complex, dynamic and sophisticated cognitive processes, and to identify the characteristics of experts based on the brain by comparing EEG activity. This study conducted experimental design with 10 dentists with more than 10 years of clinical experience and 10 students with short clinical experience as beginners as a fourth year student before graduation. The hypothesis-oriented algorithm proposed in HOAC II was used. As a standard, the clinical decision-making stage of the dentist was divided into three stages, and an event was developed and an experiment was designed for measuring EEG for each stage. The cerebral activity distribution patterns of the two groups were measured with EEG, compared and analyzed with pre-processing process using EEGlab. As a result, the difference in the auditory information was not noticeable between the novice and the expert, but the difference between the group of the novice and the expert appeared in the visual data and the radiographic data. In the case of beginners, the activity was higher in the left hemisphere, and in the case of experts, both brains were activated. The results of this study are intended to present objective information based on brain-based analysis of differences that appear in the clinical decision-making process of experts and beginners. It can be used as basic research data to present the brain-based characteristic analysis of dentist experts.
Leiomyoma is a Benign tumor that develops in smooth muscles and is known to occur more in women in age between 40s and 50s. The most common site of leiomyoma is uterine (95 %). It occurred in oral region is very rare about 0.065 % and usually developed in upper and lower lips, palatal site, buccal site and tongues. The prognosis of leiomyoma is very positive. The recurrence rate is extremely low to 2 % below. In present study, we report a 78 year old female with a lesion located in temporomandibular joint cavity which was suspected as a malignant tumor. Additionally, this paper reports contains a literature review of oral leiomyoma. Rare location with painless leiomyoma of present case will be considered to be caution.