To gain insights into the role of purinergic receptors in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) differentiation, we characterized the expression and functional activity of P2Y1 receptors and investigated the effects of ADP on the proliferation and differentiation of this pulp stem-like cell population. Our data showed that ADP did not induce cell proliferation to expose the various ADP concentrations for 72 hours, but the proliferative capacity of hDPCs was inhibited at higher ATP concentrations (100 μM). Using RT-PCR analysis, we found that ADP induced several P2Y receptors including P2Y1 as well as odontoblastic differentiation genes, dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of ADP on the expression of DMP-1 and DSPP mRNA were prevented by the P2Y1 antagonist MRS2179. The extracellular matrix calcium deposits were clearly observed in ADP-treated hDPCs by alizarin red S staining. Quantitative measurement of mineralization induced by ADP was significantly inhibited in MRS2179-treated hDPCs. These results may provide new insights into the molecular regulation of the differentiation of hDPCs.
Although salivary gland adenocarcinoma NOS accounts for third prevalence rate of all salivary gland tumors, it is one of the most aggressive solid tumors. Current therapy does not significantly improve survival rates. Thus, investigating new therapeutic modalities against salivary gland adenocarcinoma NOS is necessary. It is well known that docetaxel(TXT) as an antimicrotubulin agent induces mitotic block in proliferating cells. TXT has significant antitumor effects, and it is currently being tested in patients with malignant tumors, but TXT has not yet been tested in malignant salivary gland tumors. The purpose of this study were to examine the effects of TXT and to evaluate the biological mechanisms of TXT on salivary gland adenocarcinoma NOS. Proliferation, cell cycle regulation, connexin43 expression, apoptosis, and Fas receptor(FasR) expression were measured in cultured SGT cell line. Proliferation was little changed after 10ng/ml TXT exposure, but cellular proliferation was inhibited according to increasing concentration of TXT and time. Especially it was prominently inhibited after 96 hrs at 20ng/ml. G2-M arrest stage showed about up to 5 fold increase after exposure of TXT by flow cytometry. Apoptosis index showed about up to 8 fold increase after exposure of TXT by flow cytometry. Fas expression showed about up to 3 fold increase after exposure of TXT by flow cytometry. Apoptosis showed about up to 3 fold increase at 20ng/ml after exposure of TXT and anti-Fas agonist by flow cytometry. In Immunoslot blotting, Cx 43 protein expression was increased after TXT treatment. It suggested that TXT might induce apoptosis in SGT cells and could be used as a potent and specific chemotherapeutic tool for the treatment of salivary gland adenocarcinoma NOS in future.
Coffee (Coffea spp.) is one of the most important agricultural commodities, being widely consumed in the world. Various beneficial health effects of coffee have been extensively investigated, but data on habitual coffee consumption and its bio-physiological effect have not been clearly explained as well as it is not proved the cause and effect between drinking coffee and its bio-physiological reactions. We made the dialyzed coffee extract (DCE), which is absorbable through gastrointestinal tract, in order to elucidate the cellular effect of whole small coffee molecules. RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage lineage, were directly treated with DCE, i.e., DCE-2.5 (equivalent to 2.5 cups of coffee a day), DCE-5, and DCE-10, for 12 hours, and their protein extracts were examined by immunoprecipitation high performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC). RAW 264.7 cells differently expressed the inflammation-related proteins depending on the doses of DCE. RAW 264.7 cells treated with DCE showed marked increase of cathepsin C, cathepsin G, CD20, CD28, CD31, CD68, indicating the activation of innate immunity. Particularly, the macrophage biomarkers, cathepsin G, cathepsin C, CD31, and CD68 were markedly increased after DCE-5 and DCE-10 treatments, and the lymphocyte biomarkers, CD20 and CD28 were consistently increased and became marked after DCE-10 treatment. On the other hand, RAW 264.7 cells treated with DCE showed consistent increase of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory factor, but gradual decreases of different pro-inflammatory proteins including TNFα, COX-2, lysozyme, MMP-2, and MMP-3. In particular, the cellular signaling of inflammation was gradually mitigated by the reduction of TNFα, COX-2, IL-12, and M-CSF, and also the matrix inflammatory reaction was reduced by marked deceases of MMP-2, MMP-3, and lysozyme. These anti-inflammatory expressions were consistently found until DCE-10 treatment. Therefore, it is presumed that DCE may have dynamic effects of innate immunity activation and pro-inflammation suppression on RAW264.7 cells simultaneously. These effects were consistently found in the highest dose of coffee, DCE-10 (equivalent to 10 cups of coffee a day in man), that might imply the small coffee molecules were accumulated in RAW 264.7 cells after DCE-10 treatment and produce synergistic cytokine effects for innate immunity activation and anti-inflammatory reaction concurrently.
This study was performed to analyze the psychologic change of Tae-kwon-do Athletes who were wearing the mouth guard and one of contact sports during their matches of Tae-kwon-do 10 selected Tae-kwon-do athletes who had no injuries which they had college Tae-kwon-do sparring matches in the Cheon-an area have participated in the study. The oral impressions if the selected athletes were taken to produce for individual custom mouth guards. After the mouth guards were produced, each of them sat in a chair and attached G.S.R. surface electrodes in the palms of the ends of the second and third fingers of their left hands without moving their left hands, And then they were asked to watch footages of Tae-kwon-do games to stimulate them as if the had have a mock match, and Labscribe2 which are one of polygraphy was used to record their G.S.R. values. To determine whether the mouth guards affected the changes of their psychological status during the sparring matches of not, the experimental group wore the mouth guards while they watched the footages, and the control group didn’t wear any mouth guards. The G.S.R. values of the two groups were measured while the watched the footages. To see if there were and significant polygraphy differences between the experimental group and the control group in G.S.R. values, a statistical package SPSS was used to make a comparative analysis. And there were significant change in between the experimental and control group that wore the mouth guards, and it was concluded the wearing mouth guards exerts an influence on change in the psychological state of Tae-kwon-do athletes while they watch a footage of mock match.
Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is benign and exhibits multifocal involvement of tooth-bearing areas of the jaw. Initially, the lesions are radiolucent but become mixed. In late stages, the lesions change into a radiopaque mass with a thin radiolucent rim. Most FCOD cases are asymptomatic, and conservative treatment is recommended. However, surgical intervention is necessary in secondary infected cases. Because of hypovascularity, infected lesions are difficult to manage and do not respond to antibiotic medications. This clinical report describes the treatment of secondary infection of an FCOD lesion with both conservative and surgical interventions.