The human embryonic-lethal abnormal vision-like protein, HuR, stabilizes mRNA containing adenine- and uridine- rich elements in their 3’untranslated region. Because cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA is a cellular transcript that contains an adenine- and uridine-rich element, it can be regulated by the HuR protein. In this study, we examined the relationship between COX-2, HuR, MVD, and the clinicopathological parameters. Nineteen out of 43 cases of HNSCC showed high level of COX-2expression, and 68% of these patients showed high COX-2 immuno-reactivity indicating the strong expression of the cytoplasmic HuR protein. Also, MVD expression in the cases with high COX-2 expression was higher than in the cases with low COX-2 expression. These results suggest a strong correlation between the overexpression of cytoplasmic HuR and COX-2 expression in HNSCC, and that COX-2 is associated with MVD in HNSCC. In conclusion, COX-2 regulated by cytoplasmic HuR may be a good tumor angiogenic factor in HNSCC.
As the human mixed saliva plays important roles for the protection, regeneration, immunity, and molecular transfer/ signaling in the oral and gastro-intestinal mucosa, the salivary contents have great implications for the general health of human body. Nevertheless, the analysis method of human saliva has not been well developed up to date, because the proteins of mixed saliva are rapidly interacted with each other and easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes and microorganisms. This study aims to develop an immunoprecipitation-based high performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC) for the analysis of human mixed saliva. The representative IP-HPLC analyses were performed to compare among different subjects in variable general conditions. Compared to the normal control the subjects suffered from bacterial infections of gastro-intestinal enteritis, chronic periodontitis, and acute necrotizing gingivo-stomatitis showed dramatic increase of LL-37 level depending on the severity of diseases, while the subject suffered from Herpes stomatitis, a viral infection showed great increase of β-defensin 2. These data indicate that LL-37 in human mixed saliva is more responsible to the bacterial infections of gastro-intestinal enteritis, chronic periodontitis, and acute necrotizing gingivo-stomatitis, while β-defensin 2 is more responsible to the viral infection of Herpes stomatitis. This study also suggeststhat the IP-HPLC be easily applicable to the wide range of biological samples for the quantitative analysis of an objective protein.
Cyclosporine A (Cs A) which is a highly lipophilic cyclic undecapeptide mainly used for its immunosuppressive properties exert a wide spectrum of biological activities including fungicidal antiproliferactive, anti-inflammatory and chemotherapuetic effects. Human salivary gland adenocarcinoma is very aggressive characteristics, which is need to get the effective chemotherapuetic methods. Subconfluent SGT cell cultures have been treated with CsA at in vivo relevant concentrations for 24h. MTT assay for cellular proliferation of cultured SGT cell line has been performed and TGase 1 activity assay for cellular differentiation has been detected in the CsA-treated samples. It suggested that CsA could have an inhibitory effect in the proliferation of SGT cell line but no in the differentiation.
We have previously shown that 5’-nitro-indirubinoxime (5’-NIO) has potent anti-tumor effect in various human cancer cells. But the potential anti-invasive effect of 5’-NIO in salivary gland cancer has not been studied yet. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of 5'-NIO on salivary gland adenocarcinoma SGT cell adhesion and migration to Type I collagen treatment. Western blot, adhesion and migration assay were performed to evaluate the impacts of 5’-NIO on the expression of MMP-2/-9 and its upstream signaling molecules after treatment of type І collagen. SGT cell adhesion to type I collagen is significantly suppressed by 5’-NIO. 5’-NIO decreased expression of β1 integrin, phosphorylation of FAK, MMP-2/ -9 compared with type I collagen treatment. In addition, 5’-NIO inhibited the migration of SGT cells treated with type I collagen. These results suggest that 5’-NIO could effectively inhibit the invasion and migration of human SGT cells by downregulating the expression of β1 integrin and MMP-2/-9 and phosphorylation of FAK, Akt, and Erk. Adhesion and migration to type I collagen of SGT cells can be influenced through 5’-NIO..
Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare odontogenic cyst, which shows cystic structures lined by stratified squamous epithelium with various thickness. Glandular duct-like spaces lined by eosinophilic cuboidal or columnar cells constitute the epithelial surface. The purpose of this study was to present 7 cases of GOC retrieved from the files of the Department of Oral Pathology, Seoul National University Dental Hospital and to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratins (CKs) in the epithelial components. A total of 7 GOCs were reviewed clinically and radiographically and immunostainning for CK 5, 7, 14, 18 and CK-pan were performed. There were five males and two females aged from 36 to 53 years (mean 45 years). Maxilla was more affected than mandibles (6:1). Radiographically, all cases showed multilocular radiolucencies with well-defined borders. Histologically, lining epithelium of GOC was composed of nonkeratinized stratified epithelial cells with focal plaque-like or whirl pool-like thickenings. Surface epithelial layer contained eosinophilic cuboidal cells or mucous cells. Mucin pools of microcystic areas was also detected in the epithelium. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that epithelium of GOCs was positively reactive for CK 5 7, 14 and CK-pan with a slight variation in their patterns and there was no reaction for CK 18.
Myoepithelioma is a rare tumor that seldom occur in the parapharyngeal space region. And an accurate diagnosis of myoepithelioma is very difficult due to its unusual location and cellular variation. Therefore, misdiagnosis of this neoplasm as more aggressive tumor can lead to unnecessary treatment. We experienced extremely rare case of myoepithelioma arising in the deep lobe of parotid gland that is extended in the parapharyngeal space and reported it to a literature review.