The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristic of deproteinized freeze dried bovine bone(DFDBB) through grafting to maxillary sinus as following time lapsed. Nine patients who were needed of sinus elevation procedure because of severe resorption of maxillary edentulous alveolar bone were selected. patients were divided into three group. Firstly sinus lifting procedure was performed and then the implantation procedure was performed after 6 months in first group, 12 months in second group and 18 months in third group and simutaneously tissues of sinus were obtained by trephine. 18 sections are made from every obtained tissue. 9 sections were stained by Masson's trichrome method and were taken a photo at 100 times of magnification. Relative area of newly formed bone were obtained by IPTK(image processing tool kit) version 5.0 program and mean values and standard deviations were produced from obtained data by using SPSS version 17 program and significance tests were conducted by ANOVA method. This study revealed that DFDBB stimulated new bone formation in maxillary sinus and did not have osteoinductive capacity but osteoconductive capacity, and DFDBB was exceedingly slowly resorbed.
Human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were reported to play an important role in inflammatory reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from P.gingivalis in the periodontal connective tissue. Although the biostimulatory effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, such as anti-inflammatory activity, have been reported, the pathological mechanism is not completely understood. This study examined the changes in the inflammatory cytokine profiles, which are produced after exposure to hyperbaric oxygen in P.gingivalis LPS-treated human gingival fibroblasts, and subsequently to examine the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway involved in cytokine production. Gingival fibroblasts with or without P.gingivalis LPS were exposed to hyperbaric oxygen, and the cytokine profiles in the supernatant were observed using a human inflammation antibody array. The expression of cyclooxyginase-2 (COX-2) protein, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPK by western blot analysis, and the amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the supernatant by an enzyme-linked immunoassay were determined. COX-2 protein expression and PGE2productionwereincreasedsignificantlyintheP. gingivalis LPS-treated group, and were decreased by treating P. gingivalis LPS with hyperbaric oxygen. Treatment of P. gingivalis LPS in the gingival fibroblasts led an increase in the amount of pro-inflammatory-related cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 released, whereas hyperbaric oxygen inhibits the irrelease. Ananalysis of the MAPK signal transduction showed that hyperbaric oxygen induced a significant decrease in the level of P38 phosphorylation regardless of the presence or absence of LPS. In addition, hyperbaric oxygen promoted JNK phosphorylation, significantly in the presence of LPS. Hyperbaric oxygen can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediate the MAPK signal pathway, and appears to be useful as an anti-inflammatory tool.
In order to unravel unidentified genes from human salivary gland, a cDNA library of human submandibular gland was constructed in the Uni‐ZAP XR vector by use of mRNA from human submandibular gland and ZAP‐cDNA® Gigapack® III Gold Cloning Kit. cDNA of salivary gland was subtracted with cDNA of immortalized human keratinocyte cell line, Rhim Human Epithelial Keratinocyte cell line. The phage cDNA library was converted into a pBluescript phagemid cDNA library, which was subsequently plated on LB plates with ampicillin, IPTG, and X‐gal, and white colonies were selected for sequencing. Among 200 clones analyzed, four clones containing C77‐091, C75‐014, C76‐022, and C76‐012 designated orphan genes that are intensely expressed in the interlobular ductal and serous acinar cells of human submandibular gland. Particularly C77‐091 gene expresses 46 amino acids peptide (pI=9.45). C75‐014 and C76‐022 genes were characterized as those expressing excretory basic proteins primarily consist of alanine, proline, and leucine residues, mimicking a basic proline‐rich protein (bPRP) showing helical structures and having multiple consensus sequences of phosphorylation sites. The strong expression of C76‐012 mRNA in the nuclei of salivary ductal and acinar cells suggests a role of C76‐012 gene as a DNA binding RNA/protein. These data suggest that the identification of four orphan genes from the human salivary glands may add further understanding of greater role of salivary proteins providing innate immunity by protecting and stabilizing the mucosal epithelium in the maintaining homeostasis of oral mucosa.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are known to promote osteogenesis, and clinical trials are currently underway evaluating the ability of BMPs to promote bone formation in grafting procedures and fracture healing. Some studies, have independently reported that sulfated polysaccharides particularly heparin, enhance the osteoblastic differentiation induced by BMPs in vitro, and another study demonstrated that heparin enhanced the bone formation induced by BMP‐2 in vivo. This study was performed to examine adipose stem cell responses to rhBMP‐2 alone and rhBMP‐2 with heparin at 0.25, and 25 μg/㎖ concentrations, respectively, in culture media. Adipose stem cells were cultured for 2, 4, and 8 days toward the osteoblastic differentiation in rhBMP‐2 alone and rhBMP‐2 with heparin at 0.25, and 25 μg/㎖ concentrations, respectively, in culture media. Verification of the stem cell lineage was performed in two ways. The first method was a continuous sequential culture until 5th generation. The second method was using monoclonal antibodies for STRO‐1 and CD 90. Naphthol AS phosphate‐fast blue BB staining for alkaline phosphatase was used for verifying osteoblastic differentiation because Alkaline phosphatase activity had been used as an osteoblastic differentiation marker and degree of osteoblastic activity. Alizarin red staining was also used as an osteoblastic differentiation marker because it quantifies the calcium levels in cells or tissues. During the 5th generation culture, cultured cells actively proliferated, and these cultured cells showed a positive reaction to STRO‐1 and CD90 cell surface molecules. Naphthol AS phosphate‐fast blue BB staining and Alizarin red staining were positive in most samples of each group at 2, and 4 days and positive reaction was proportioned to degree of morphological differentiation. In the concentration of 25 μg/ml of heparin, the ALP activity was highest at the 2nd day in the culture, and then the activities of ALP were decreased significantly at 4, and 8 days. The ALP activity was greatest at the 4th day of the culture, and then decreased significantly at the 8th day in 0 μ g/ml and 0.25 μg/ml of heparin concentrations, Adipose stem cells could be differentiated in rhBMP‐2 in culture media, and the addition of heparin to BMP‐2 promoted differentiation of osteoblasts. Moreover, morphological differentiation was associated with the activity of osteoblasts. This study was shown that, when heparin concentration increases, the early differentiation of the cells was brought about, but the early differentiated cells were rapidly progressed to degenerative changes
Physical movement is reduced because of convinient life style by advancing of science. People need physical movement and athletes also need more physical training for their health and better records because of reduced movement in modern life style. Some athletes competing in contact sports wear dental mouth guards to reduce the risk of orofacial trauma and to increase the strength of muscle. It has been speculated that the use of mouth guards improves athletic ability such as muscular strength and equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to test the influence of C.M(custom made) mouth guard according to strength of taekwondo athletes. 5 trained subjects participating in taekwondo students in D University were included in this study. Deltoid muscular activity were tested by means of electromyograph (E.M.G) with or without wearing mouth guard. Subjects have pressed with 5 Kg barbell. The data were transferred to computer system as raw and integral data. The data were analysed by computer system, showing wearing mouth guard had higher action potential than non-wearing mouth guard. This meant that wereing mouth guard could enhance the muscle force in deltoid. It suggested that taekwondo athletes could use C.M mouth guard without any negative effect on their muscle strength.
Sialodochitis is an inflammatory disease on salivary gland duct. Although most of sialoadenitis includes inflammatory status of ductal system, an unusual behavior such as localized inflammation only in the duct is rarely observed. Sialodochitis is a very rare disease that was first reported by Kussmaul in 1879.1) Common symptoms of chronic sialodochitis are an excretion of mucous plugs and a swelling of the cheek. Sialodochitis may be associated with a type I hypersensitivity in the salivary duct and parotid gland, because of the large amount of eosinophils in saliva, and the common allergic history such as bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The management of sialodochitis depends on the severity of disease. The surgical procedure such as drainage operation, sialodochoplasty, or superficial parotidectomy can be selected. We report the case of chronic sialodochitis with literature review.