Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been widely used in clinical fields and done by three components: photosensitizers (PSs), light and oxygen. Under the action of PS as an energy transforming media, the light energy is converted to chemical energy to make effects on target. In the process of PDT, its effect is determined a lot by the parameter of light and the characteristics of PSs. With the development of light source and photosensitizer, the application of PDT has been investigated in oral diseases. This review mainly focused on the effect of PDT on non-tumor diseases of oral cavity, including endodontic, periodontal and mucosal problem. Compared with the normal therapy, the combination therapy with PDT could obtain better efficacy. It was suggested that PDT showed great advantages as an adjuvant therapy in the above oral diseases. Through a further improvement, PDT is expected to play an increasingly important role on the oral disease treatment in the future.
Menton (Me) deviation is commonly used for diagnosing facial asymmetry. This study compared angle and distance measurement in determining the severity of Me deviation for facial asymmetry diagnosis. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic(3D CT) images of 32 patients (mean age 22.5yrs, SD 3.4yrs; 16 male, 16 female) with facial asymmetry were selected for this study. Angle and distance of Me deviation in each patient were obtained and the severity of Me deviation was determined according to the angle and the distance measurement. The severity of Me deviation by angle and distance measurement was compared and statistical analysis was performed. Eight (25%) showed disagreement in severity of Me deviation between the two measurements. The kappa coefficient on the two measurements was 0.67, showing substantial agreement. It is suggested that both angle and distance measurement be performed in determining severity of Me deivation.
Perineural invasion (PNI) is the underestimated metastatic pathway and has been widely recognized as a negative prognostic factor in many human cancers. L1CAM is one of members of the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (CAM) family, which play a role in neural development. Moreover, a new role of L1CAM outside the nervous system has been revealed. Overexpression of L1CAM was involved in the tumor progression and LN metastasis in various malignancies. In the present study, presence of PNI and L1CAM expression were examined to define their prognostic values in OSCC. In addition, association of L1CAM expression with presence of PNI was assessed to define the value as a candidate molecule supporting the diagnosis of PNI. We found that presence of PNI significantly correlated with LN metastasis and advanced clinical stage. L1CAM expression also significantly correlated with differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage, as well as presence of PNI. Our results suggest that L1CAM seems to play a role in tumor progression, possibly through the PNI-related mechanism and could be a molecular marker for supporting the presence of PNI and predicting clinical outcome in OSCC.
With few reported cases, cystic hygroma is known to occur mainly in patients under the age of two years. Cystic hygroma can eventuate in any area; however, it mostly occurs in the cervicofacial area. If cystic hygroma occurs in this area, then the lesion may be related to the vital structures. Therefore, a complete surgical resection may be impossible and difficult to perform. This incident affects the high recurrence rate of cystic hygroma. The purpose of this report is to present a case of cystic hygroma occurring on the left side of the neck of a 47-year-old male patient as well as a review of literatures.
Lingual cyst is a clinical term indicating a cyst occurring within the tongue. Various disease may clinically present as a lingual cyst, such as foregut cyst, dermoid cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst, salivary duct cyst, hemangioma and ranula. In general, lingual cysts are asymptomatic but may cause airway obstruction, feeding or swallowing problems. Most of these lesions can be simply treated by surgical excision with good postoperative healing and low recurrence rate. Apart from that, histopathological diagnosis of the lesion is important because it means the origin of the lesion. Thus it is important to rule out several origins of lingual cyst histopathologically, because it might be related with adjacent anatomical structure or may indicate cysts on other sites. Herein, we reported a case of lingual cyst with columnar epithelium at the ventral tongue of a 46-year old man and reviewed the clinical and histopathological considerations required for further classification in lingual cysts.