Amino acid transporters are essential for the growth and proliferation in all living cells. Among the amino acid transporters, the system L amino acid transporters are the major nutrient transport system responsible for the Na+-independent transport of neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of system L amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in cancer cells to support their continuous growth and proliferation. 2-Aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid(BCH) is a model compound for study of amino acid transporter as a system L selective inhibitor. We have examined the effect and mechanism of BCH on cell growth suppression in FaDu human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The BCH inhibited the L-leucine transport in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC 50 value of 43.8±4.3μM. The majority of L-leucine uptake is, therefore, mediated by LAT1 in FaDu cells. The growth of FaDu cells was inhibited by BCH in the time- and concentration- dependent manners. The formation of DNA ladder was not observed with BCH treatment in the cells. Furthermore, the proteolytic processing of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in the cells was not detected by BCH treatment. These results suggest that the BCH inhibits the growth of FaDu human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through the intracellular depletion of neutral amino acids for cell growth without apoptotic processing
Nuclear factor I-C (NFI-C) null mice demonstrated aberrant odontoblast differentiation, abnormal dentin formation, and thus molar lacking roots. However, the mechanism by which the disruption of NFI-C gene affect the expression of other genes in dental pulp cells remains unknown. In this study, in order to understand this mechanism, the gene expression of pulp cells in NFI-C deficient mice were compared to those of wild-type mice by cDNA microarray analysis. According to the cDNA microarray profile comparison, the disruption of NFI-C gene increased the expression of TGF-β and TGF-β receptor, whereas it decreased the expression of Smad proteins. Interestingly, most of the FGF-related genes were down-regulated in pulp cells by NFI-C gene disruption. Among the cell cycle-related genes, the expression of p16 and p18 were increased by NFI-C disruption, but the expression of cy clin E1 and cy clin D1 were decreased by NFI-C disruption. These results indicate that the disturbance of NFI-C gene suppressed the proliferation of pulp cells and up-regulated the expression of TGF-β and its downstream signaling molecules during root formation, contributing to the formation of short root containing abnormal dentin.
Taxol(paclitaxel) is used in chemotherapy against several cancer. Treatment of tumor cell lines with taxol induces apoptosis, but exact mechanism is not sufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate apoptosis by the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel on the motility properties of human salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell lines. Paclitaxel inhibited cell motility induced by soluble and immobilized attractant. It suggested that paclitaxel would be a potent inhibitor of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell motility independent of its cytotoxic and apoptotic activity.
In order to develop a protective carrier scaffolder for the external usage of medical and hygienic materials, three essential protective elements existing in nature, i.e., algin, cellulose, and calcium phosphate apatite, were investigated. The algin is a main skeletal component of sea weeds, the cellulose is of vegetables, and the calcium phosphate apatite is of vertebral animals. In the present study we select the agarose which is a derivative from algin, the cellulose fiber obtained from skin of sea squirt, calcium oxide purified from shell powder, and tricalcium phosphate apatite purchased commercially. Consequently, the agarose-cellulose hybrid was made by the hydrogen bonds intermediating the calcium phosphate apatite between agarose and cellulose molecules. As the calcium phosphate apatite is formed by the addition of calcium hydroxide into tricalcium phosphate solution, we used calcium oxide to accelerate the hybridization between the agarose and calcium phosphate apatite and also between the cellulose and calcium phosphate apatite. In the phase contrast microscopic observation the agarose-cellulose hybrid showed more compact matrix structure than the mixture of agarose and cellulose. The agarose-cellulose hybrid showed increased storage modulus but decreased loss modulus in Rheometer test compared to those of the other materials tested in this study, representing that the agarose-cellulose hybrid has the highest elasticity among them and similar water capacity to agarose. The agarose-cellulose hybrid showed the strongest antimicrobial effect in bacteria killing assay than the other materials, and also it showed a potent blood clotting effect but no immunological hypersensitivity on the human skin. From the above results we presumed that the nobel material, agarose-cellulose hybrid, is a compact scaffolding matrix which has proper elasticity, high capacity to hold substrates, and antimicrobial and blood clotting property potent enough to carry the bio-medical and hygienic materials for external treatment safely.
It is necessary to improve the esthetic and function in the patient with oral and maxillofacial bone defects. Synthetic bone substitute materials and anorganic bovine bone mineral(ABBM) have been used for clinical restoration. The purpose of this study was to observe the biocompatibility and bone formation of synthetic hydroxyapatite(SHA) and ABBM in hole of rabbit's tibia. After specimens with SHA and ABBM at 8 weeks were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution, dehydrated, and embedded with spurr low viscosity, they were cut by 500um with slow diamond wheel saw and grinded up to 200um in thickness. These specimens were coated with carbon and examined with r efraction microscope for bone density. Refraction microscopic features of 8 weeks in synthetic HA showed network-like new bone forming trabecular pattern attached to resorbed HA. Less well calcified trabecular bone surrounding conglomerated HAs showed irregular arrangement of numerous osteocytes. There was not completely filled in defected area by new bone trabecular. New trabecular bone formation by ABBM was more prominent and completely compacted in defect hole at 8 weeks. It suggested that although bone formation activity of AMMB might be superior to that on synthetic HA, both group would be the good biocompatibility in this experiment.
In order to investigate the resistance patterns and molecular characteristics of resistance gene of 9 NA-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Total of 101 isolates were isolated from stool sampes from 2005 to 2006. Among them, 48 isolates(47.5%) were identified S. Enteritidis, 24 isolates(23.8%) S. Typhi, 8 isolates(42.5%) S. Typhimurium, 7 isolates(6.9%) S. Paratyphi A and 14 isolates (13.9%) others Salmonellas. All of S. Enteritidis were resistant to ampicillin(43.8%), ticarcillin(43.8%), streptomycin(37.5%), chloramphenicol(29.2%), tetracycline(10.4%) and nalidixic acid(18.8%), respectively. All nalidixic acid-resistance isolates represented one point mutation in the quinolone resistance determining region(QRDR) of gyrA gene. Among them, 8(89%) isolates were substituted Tyr for Ser at position amino acid 83th or 1(11%) isolate was substituted Asn for Asp at position amino acid 87th. In consequence, Continued surveillance of NA-resistance among non-Typhi S. entetica isolates is needed to mitigate the increasing prevalence of nalidixic acid resistance.
In order to investigate phenotype and genotype of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Forty-eight S. Enteritidis isolates from diarrhea patients were analysed using antimicrobial resistance typing, Phage typing, and Pulsed field gel electrophoresis in Seoul from 2004 to 2005. All of S. Enteritidis were resistant to streptomycin(SM, 37.5%), ampicillin(AM, 43.8%), t icarcillin(TIC, 43.8%), chloramphenicol(CM, 29.2%), t etracycline(TE, 10 .4%) and nalidixic acid(NA, 18.8%) among 16 antimicrobial drugs. Of 48 S. Enteritidis, 8 isolates(16.7%) were resistant to 1 drug, 3 isolates( 6.3%) to 2 drugs, 1 isolate (2.1%) to 3 drugs and 17 isolates(35.7%) to 4 drugs. The basic pattern of 4 drugs resistance was SM, TIC, TE, and CM but 1 drug resistant isolates represent all nalidixic acid resistance. Among 30 antibiotic r esistant S . Enteritidis, 2 1 isolates(70 %) were phage type 2 1, 8 i solates(26.7%) were phage t ype 2 3 and 1 isolate( 3.3%) was RDNC, respectively. Of the phage types observed, all of phage type 23(8 isolates) were nalidixic acid resistant and phage type 21 were AM-TIC-SM-CM multi-resistance(13 isolates; 43.3%), AM-TIC-SM-TE(4 isolates; 13.3%), AM-TIC-SM(1 isolate; 3.3%), AM-TIC-CM(1 isolate; 3.3%), and AM-TIC(2 isolates; 6.7%) resistance and 1 isolate of RDNC was NA-TE resistance. PFGE divided the isolates into two major clusters, A(n=14) and B(n=14). There were four different resistance profiles with resistance to AM, TIC, SM, TE, NA within PFGE A. Also resistance to AM, TIC, SM, CM was common within PFGE B. The PFGE A strains typed as PT21(n=5), PT23(n=8), and RDNC(n=1), While all the PFGE B strains typed as PT21(n=14). In consequence, there was the highly significant concurrence between resistance typing, phage typing and PFGE.
Some sports players use dental mouth guards to reduce the risk of orofacial trauma. Althoug mouth guard have been shown to protect against orofacial injury, many players do not use them during training and playing because of discomfort and breathing problems. This study was performed to measure the alteration of respirotory volume during wear the mouth guard. I checked 5 D university male students ventlation with and without mouth guard in steady state. Air flow and volume were decreased during wearing Mouth guards compare to not wering. It suggested that mouth guard would have change the ventilation patterns.
Most of mucous retention phenomena occurred in the mucous secretory glands, 1 e ‘ minor salivary gland, sublingual gland and submandibular gland. The mucous retention cyst from parotid gland has been very rarely reported in the literature As the parotid gland is composed of serous acini, the serous saliva is less likely to produce the retention phenomenon in the ducts or extraductal tissue. Here, a case of mucous retention cyst in parotid gland was demonstrated The patient of this case has been complaining of recurrent swelling of right cheek in parotid gland a'rea, and showed a feature of chronic sialadenitis or benign salivary gland tumor. The extravasated serous saliva was diffusely dispersed into the adjacent connective tissue, forming an ill-defined cyst cavity with hyalinized sclerotic luminal surface The inflammatory reaction was relatively mild compared to the extensive destruction of periglandular connective tissue However, the typical foamy macrophage was not seen but the infiltrated macrophages containing abundant eosi nophilic cytoplasm. The mucous retention phenomenon could be very rare in parotid gland, which is also easily distinguishable from chronic sialadenitis or benign tumor through path이ogical examination.