The purpose of this study was to synthetically examine the relationship between systemic diseases and periodontal diseases. The data obtained from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. SPSS 18.0 for Windows was applied for statistical analysis. The surveyed data were analyzed by using independent sample t-test for the difference between Body Mass Index and clinical test according to the existence of periodontal disease, and X2 test for the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used in order to figure out the influence upon the periodontal disease prevalence among general characteristics and systemic diseases. As results, the values of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and HBA1C were statistically significant, depending on the presence of periodontal disease. As for the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic disease, hypertension (odds ratio 1.362, p<.05), cardiovascular disease (odds ratio 2.118, p<.05), arthritis (odds ratio 1.289, p<.05) and cirrhosis (odds ratio 6.124, p<.05) were statistically significant. According to Multiple logistic regression analysis, gender (odds ratio 1.24, p<.05), alcohol intake (odds ratio 1.25, p<.05), cardiovascular diseases (odds ratio 1.56, p<.05), and liver cirrhosis (odds ratio 1.17, p<.05) were related to the prevalence of periodontal diseases. In conclusion, the systemic diseases such as cardiovascular system, diabetes, and liver diseases revealed to have relationship with periodontal disease. To strengthen oral health education is needed to enhance systemic health as well as oral health. Moreover, basic biological research should be followed to support this surveyed study.
The PHBV nonofibrous membrane fabricated by electron-spinning method for tissue engineered bone regeneration scaffold was evaulated in terms of cellular prolieration and cryopreservation efficiency. The rat calvarial periosteum derived primary cells were cultured with PHBV nanofibrous membranes and analyzed the cellular proliferation and differention fashion and cryopreservation potential by in vitro MTT assay as well as ALP staining and Alizarine red staining with or without cryopreservation for 2 weeks. The rat calvarial periosteum derived primary cells cultured with PHBV nonofibrous membrane showed favorable proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity with numerous mineral nodule formation regardless of cryopreservation, even though its efficiency was slightly decreased in cryopreserved condition. These findings suggest that PHBV nanofibrous membrane can be applicable as an efficient cell engineered membrane for guided bone regeneration or scaffold for tissue engineered bone regeneration.
S. aureus is reported as a major cause of nosocomial infections after dental care and involved in endocarditis, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, and soft tissues etc. It is very important to identify the distribution and the diversity of toxin gene associated with the S. aureus expression in dental care patients with periodontitis directly for an effective prevention and treatment of dental diseases. Fifty four strains of S. aureus were isolated from the saliva of 129 patients who were diagnosed with periodontitis at dental clinics and hospitals located in Seoul. The distribution of the virulence gene and the genetic diversity of the strains were studied using the polymerase chain reaction with isolated strains. The enterotoxin test showed Seb was the most frequent gene with 88.9%. The hemolysin gene of Hla, Hib and Hld were the most frequently gene with 98.1% (53 strains), leukocidins gene of lukM showed 90.7% (49 strains), and laminin binding protein gene of Eno showed 100% (54 strains), respectively. The diversity of the enterotoxin gen was held as Seb-Seg-Sei gene of 35.2% (19 strains), the diversity of hemolysin gene of Hla-Hlb-Hld gene was 98.1% (53 strains) and the diversity of leukocidins gene of LukD-LukM were 88.9% (48 strains), respectively. Patients with dental disease showed somehow high toxin gene expression so that S. aureus in dental care area is judged to show very highly pathogen with a high and infection rate. In the future, additional studies for these toxin genes seem to be required.
Terfenadine (TFN) was a second generation histamine receptor antagonist. Although several studies have reported the regulatory effect of H1-histamine receptor antagonists in human cancer cell lines, its effect in oral cancer remains unclear. In this study, we focused on addressing the anti-cancer activity of TFN in human oral cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer activities of TFN were performed by tryphan blue exclusion assay, 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, live/dead assay and Western blot analysis. TFN induced a significant reduction of the growth in three different human oral cancer cell lines (MC3, HSC4 and Ca9.22). TFN markedly induced apoptosis through DNA damage and increase in cytotoxicity. It also accumulated cleaved PARP and caspase 3. This process was due to cleavage of caspase 8 and Bid protein. The results from this study strongly demonstrated that the cleavages of caspase 8 and Bid are required for the apoptotic activity of TFN in human oral cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest TFN as a potent anticancer drug candidate for the treatment of oral cancer.
Visfatin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is thought to play a central role in systemic inflammation and the pathogenesis of obesity related diseases. Only a few studies investigated the effect of visfatin on human cancers. Furthermore, there have been no studies on the association between the expression of visfatin in OSCC tissue and its effect on OSCC patients. Hence, the present study analyzed the expression of visfatin in OSCC from Korean patients. Immunohistochemistry for visfatin was performed using 12 normal oral mucosas (NOM), 16 oral leukoplakias (with/without dysplasia), and 58 OSCC patients samples. Immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively scored and the correlation between the expression of visfatin and clinicopathological parameters of OSCC patients was analyzed. The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the expression level of visfatin increased in OSCC alone (p<0.05). Moreover, the immunoexpression score of visfatin was significantly correlated with TNM stage of OSCC patients. Our findings suggested that visfatin can play a certain role in the pathogenesis of OSCC. In addition, visfatin was associated with the tumor progression of OSCC patients and may act as independent biomarker of OSCC.
This study was performed to improve the efficiency of guided bone regeneration by adapting the tissue-engineered bone regeneration approach. The PHBV-collagen nonofibrous membranes cultured with rat calvarial periosteum derived cells in osteogenic culture medium for 7 days were applied to 5 x 2mm size artificial rat tibial defects for 3weeks and evaluated its efficiency as an alternative cell engineered membrane for effective guided bone regeneration by routine histological observation. The defects covered with cell attached PHBV-collagen nanofibrous membrane complexes showed favorable bone repair compared to both membrane non-covered control and membrane only covered group without specific side effects. These findings suggest that the favorable guided bone generation can be achieved by adapting the tissue engineered bone regeneration approach using PHBV-Collagen nanofibrous membrane scaffold.
Proper oral hygiene is required to maintain oral health and prevent oral disease. Toothbrushing is central to proper oral hygiene. Mechanical tooth cleaning is the mainstay of plaque control. A variety of toothbrushing techniques have been developed and evaluated for their efficacy. However, these evaluations are subjective. To adequately evaluate toothbrushing objectively, a novel toothbrushing monitoring system was developed. The system involves user-monitored brushing patterns including toothbrush motions using a 3-axis gyroscope, 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis magnetic sensor, one load-cell and Bluetooth devices. To confirm the efficacy of this toothbrushing monitoring system, eight periodontist performed tooth brushing in a dental model, and their brushing motion was monitored and recorded, and evaluated by statistical means. The proposed monitoring system can be used to aid dental care personnel in toothbrushing instruction.
Epidermoid cyst of the oral and maxillofacial region is a soft tissue cyst lined with keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and most commonly arises in the superficial area of the mouth floor. Uncommonly, the epidermoid cyst may arise deeply in the submandibular region and should be differentially diagnosed with cystic salivary gland tumors, developmental cysts and other cystic lesions. We report a rare case of an epidermoid cyst near the submandibular gland, clinically and radiographically mistaken as a salivary gland tumor.
We present a case of intraparotid plexiform neurofibroma in a 7-year-old man. The lesion was determined as plexiform neuroma in histopathological findings, but final diagnosis was plexiform neurofibroma considering his familiy history of neurofibromatosis and café au lait spots on his body. Currently we are executing follow-up after removing the tumor with surgery. Plexiform neurofibroma can develope at any point along a nerve and spread out either just under the skin or deeper in the body. According to the literature, the most common site of plexiform neurofibroma is mouth and face in the head and neck region. Also, plexiform neurofibroma occurs at 8.8-year-old in neurofibromatosis typeⅠ patient with familial history. Because of interlacing with adjacent normal tissue and the invasive nature we have difficult resecting the mass completely. So when the tumor turns symptomatic or disfiguring leading to an aesthetic problem, surgery had better be undertaken.
Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), also known as calcifying odontogenic cyst or Gorin cyst is a rare developmental lesion which arises from odontogenic epithelium. It has been classified as a benign odontogenic neoplasm related to odontogenic apparatus by the World Health Organization. CCOT may be associated with other odontogenic tumors, most frequently odontoma, a finding that is a rare event in other types of odontogenic cysts or tumors. This report describes a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of CCOT and ameloblastic fibroma-odontoma of the impacted right maxillary canine region that occurred in a 14-year-old female.
Odontogenic cyst and odontogenic tumor shares developmental source. However, they have different histopathologic features, and they are classified respectively. Odontogenic cyst and tumor can share same physical region. It is called a hybrid lesion, a lesion showing the combined histopathological characteristics of two or more previously recognized odontogenic tumor and/or cysts of different categories. In this study, a hybrid lesion was researched. 61-year old man was referred to our department with a multilocular radiolucency in right mandibular angle. Incisional biopsy was carried out, and the patient was diagnosed with ameloblastoma. Odontogenic keratocyst was found with the tumor, and it was thought to be evolved via neoplastic transformation from lining epithelium of the keratocyst. After reviewing studies reporting hybrid lesions from odontogenic cyst and tumor, formation of a hybrid lesion was most frequent from a dentigerous cyst and an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. A hybrid lesion commonly lead to misdiagnosis, and the prognosis is not always transparent. The close relationship between the odontogenic cyst and tumor has to be kept in mind in the diagnosis and treatment of the lesions in maxillofacial area.