A case of chronic osteomyelitis caused by prolonged intake of bisphosphonate showed multiple recurrences involving extensive area of mandibular body. After saucerization the removed bony fragments were decalcified, microsected in 4 ㎛ thickness, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, von Gieson, and periodic acid Schiff reaction. The inflammatory lesion contained fragile osteophytes easily propagated into sequestra. Histologically, this osteomyelitis was relatively less suppurative but almost granulomatous, highly infiltrated with small round cells and macrophages. The osteophytes were frequently deposited on the old lamellate bone, but their ossification was extremely immature and frequently filled with sclerosed collagen bundles positive for von Gieson stain. In the polarizing microscope observation under Masson trichrome stain the newly deposited osteophytes were lack of birefringence image of Haversian system contrast to the old bone nearby. Therefore, we presume that the prolonged intake of bisphosphonate may induce the immature osteophytes lack of Harversian system, which are partly filled with sclerotic collagen bundles, and the immature bone is easily undergone extensive degeneration and necrosis, resulted in the inflammatory foci for multiple recurrent osteomyelitis.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of survivin in various salivary gland tumors. For this study, total 18 cases of salivary gland tumors; 6 cases of benign and 12 cases of malignant tumors were used as experimental group. In benign tumors; pleomorphic adenoma, oncocytoma, and in malignant tumors; adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid tumor, high grade and low grade malignancy each, adenocarcinoma, acinic cell adenocarcinoma cases were included. And for the control group, fresh submandibular glands were attained from gnathosurgical specimen. All the specimens, experimental, control group were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solutions, embedded in paraffin, sectioned 5um or more in thickness, stained with the hematoxylin and eosin, mounted and examined under the microscope. For the immunohistochemical studies, all the specimens were activated with survivin monoclonal, and secondary antibodies as usual manners, and taken photos on various pathologic fields analysed with the image analysis system, and evaluated the positive and negative stained area in the tumors on each images and statistically analyzed with SPSS 15.0 program. Attained result as follows. In control group, in part, acini cells show positive reaction on the nuclei, negative on the all most of the cytoplasm, more intense reaction on the cytoplasm and nuclei on the serous demilune (47.33%). In experimental group, all the specimens show survivin positive reaction on the cytoplasm with/or without positive reaction on nuclei according to the tumors, in benign tumors; pleomorphic adenoma (63.48%), oncocytoma (56.31%), each and in malignant tumors; adenoid cystic carcinoma (87.6%), acinic cell adenocarcinoma (56.35%). adenocarcinoma (67.47%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma, low grade (70.76%). high grade (55.23%). Survivin expression shows higher in tumors compare to that on the control group (p<0.05), but between the malignant tumors no significant are not noted(p>0.005). Survivin expression is strongly related to the malignancy of salivary gland tumors
Green tea, derived from the plant Camellia sinensis, is one of the most common beverages consumed worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and bioactive polyphenolic constituent in green tea. Understanding how intracellular signaling pathways respond to EGCG may provide a clue to the difference of cell responses and basis for usefulness of EGCG as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent. In the present study, we tried to check whether EGCG could be a useful agent in chemotherapeutic treatment of oral squamous carcinoma. Furthermore, we investigated which signaling pathway is involved in biologic activities of EGCG. EGCG induced the cell death of oral squamous carcinoma cells. Furthermore, it increased phosphorylation of Akt in serum-strarved oral squamous carcinoma cells. But, initial increase of Akt activation did not affect cell survival. Activities of Raf-1 and Erk showed inconsistent response to EGCG treatment, but Erk phosphorylation is consistent with Raf-1 activity in YD 10B cells. These changes of Raf-1 and Erk activity in EGCG treated cells were different depending on cell line type. Supposedly, the difference of cell component may affect the Raf-1 and Erk reactivity to EGCG treatment. Akt activation by EGCG is independent on activities of PDK1 and PTEN, and expression of bax and bcl-2 proteins were not changed by EGCG treatment. Therefore, EGCG treatment did not induce the apoptosis of YD 10B cell. On the other hand, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM) was decreased by EGCG treatment, so it is possible that decrease of VCAM can play certain role in survival and/or cell death in EGCG treated cells
Adherent cells, such as those found in epithelial tissues, must be physically associated with extracellular matrix (ECM)components to survive. Though stimulation by growth factors is an essential factor in cell survival, normal cells also requires cell adhesion to ECM proteins. The cessation of these anchorage-mediated signals seems to be a common mechanism to physiolog ically t erminate t he l ife cycle of t hese c ells b y apoptosis. This form o f cell death has been termed anoikis.In cancer, resistance to anoikis of cancer cell is important in invasion and metastasis. The present study investigated the intracellular mechanism involved in anoikis, especially in cells treated with epigallocatechin- 3-gallate(EGCG). To induce anoikis, cell culture plates were coated with 10 ㎍/ml poly-HEMA. A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells were grown in RPMI 1640 medium with/without 10% fetal bovine serum, and then cells were replated on cell culture dishes coated with poly-HEMA in the presence or absence of serum. On the other hand, EGFR inhibitor, PI3K inhibitor, and EGCG were treated to the anoikis status cells, in order to evaluate the factors of anoikis. The result revealed that growth factors or loss of adhesion can increase phosphorylate Akt. In addition, lack of cell adhesion fails to activate pro-apoptotic factors directly. Activity of Erk kinase depends on not only EGFR signaling but also cell adhesion. Akt activation is mainly affected by EGCG whereas Raf-1 activation is controlled by the presence of cell contact. In addition, EGCG increased the level of NFkB, whereas phophroylated PTEN and total PTEN were not different. In this report,increase of NFkB was correlated with Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that EGCG can protect cells from detachment–induced cell death through Akt activation and subsequent NFkB
We conducted a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy using hypericin and 532㎚ DPSS (diode pumped solid state laser). The cultured KB cells were treated with serial concentrations of hypericin ranging from 0.01㎍/㎖ to 5㎍/㎖ (two-fold dilution) with variable laser dosage (10J, 20J, 30J). The cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The type of cell death was detected by fluorescent microscope using Hoechst 33342 / PI (propidium iodide) stain methods. In this study, IC50 value with hypericin-mediated PDT with 10J DPSS laser was 35 ng/ml. The maximum cytotoxicity with Photofrin II-based PDT was observed at high drug concentrations(> 90 ng/ml) independent with laser dose. And the in vitro PDT effects depended on the laser dose and drug concentrations were displayed by the difference in the type of cell death, namely apoptosis or necrosis. According to this result, the hypericin based photodynamic therapy with DPSS laser was effective photodynamic therapy.
In order to know the degenerating state of postnatal cleft lip tissue, total 23 cases of lip biopsy obtained from cleft lip surgery were collected and examined pathologically. The cleft lip tissues characteristically disclosed epithelial hyperplasia (13/23), stromal myxoid degeneration (20/23), salivary gland degeneration (1/23), muscular degeneration (11/23), and sebaceous gland hyperplasia (15/23), melanocytic infiltration (5/23). The epithelial hyperplasia was marked with hyperkeratosis and basal hyperplasia, which was usually coincident with the myxoid degeneration of underlying connective tissue. The myxoid degeneration was diffuse in the deep connective tissue with chronic inflammatoryreaction, and followed by extensive muscular degeneration. The sebaceous gland hyperplasia was usually predominant in the skin area of the cleft lip. In this study the lip biopsy from 30years old patient still showed remarkable retrogressive degeneration of lip tissue. Therefore, it is considered that the postnatal cleft lip tissue is continuously degenerative, and its retrogressive change gradually affects the deterioration of perioral muscular structures, consequently resulted in the failure of lip functions as well as further bizarre malformation of oro-facial shape during the postnatal period. These data also indicate that the biopsy of postnatal cleft lip should be recommended to know its variable degenerating status and to perform the proper rehabilitation surgery of cleft lip.
Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is uncommon, low-grade malignant epithelial neoplasm, and composed of ductal and large, clear-staining myoepithelial differentiated cells. we found four cases of EMC patients among those who visited the dental hospital of Seoul National University from 1998 to 2008. Immunohistochemical staining with epithelial and myoepithelial marker was done to verify the characteristic biphasic cell population. In our cases, the mean age of the patients was 61.5 years, which is consistent with previous reports. However, all the patients were female, and submandibular glands were the most affected sites. This is different from other reports that parotid gland was the most affected sites. There was recurrence and metastasis to lung in one out of four cases.