Lycorine, a natural alkaloid extracted from the Amaryllidaceae plant family, was reported to various physiological and pharmacological effects including anti-cancer activity. Nevertheless, there is no report of the anticancer effect of lycorine in oral cancer cells. The effects of lycorine on cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined through trypan blue exclusion assay, 4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stain, Live/Dead assay, Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Lycorine suppressed cell viability and induced apoptosis in MC3 and HSC-3 cell lines. Lycorine decreased survivin protein but did not affect its mRNA. It regulated survivin through accelerating protein degradation in a time-dependent manner although neither proteasome nor lysosome was not associated with lycorine-mediated protein degradation. Collectively, our results suggest that lycorine may be a potential therapeutic anti-cancer drug candidate for the treatment of human oral cancer.
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative bacteria of rod shape, and grown in an anerobic condition. It colonizes in subgingival crevice and is known as a major pathogen causing chronic periodontitis. It possesses an invasive property and replicative potential within various cell types, presumably playing an important role in modulating biological behaviors of oral cancer. However, the pathophysiology of P. gingivalis in the malignant transformation of oral cancer has not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate molecular changes of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells induced by repetitive P. gingivalis infection that clinically resembles chronic periodontitis.
With the multiple practices of bone graft using different artificial bone regenerative substitutes, the bone graft procedures have been widely performed to increase the bony stabilization of dental implant. Xenogenic bone graft materials have been well developed because of their good biocompatibility and abundant source of bone materials. The present study demonstrated the histological findings from excellent bony remodeling in xenogenic bone graft biopsies compared to those findings in autogenous bone graft. For the graft bone biopsies which were usually done in 5-9 months after graft bone insertion, five types of histological grades including excellent, favorable, partial, degenerative, and poor bony remodeling could be assessed to give prognostic information for dental implant. However, recently the xenograft bone materials have been much improved and produced strong osteogenic effect. Among 239 cases of trephine bur-supported core bone biopsy the excellent bony remodeling was found in 20 cases (13.1%) out of 153 xenogenic bone grafts and in 13 cases (43.3%) out of 30 autogenous bone grafts. They produced abundant new bones on the surface of the graft bones in 5–9 months, and the graft bones were partly resorbed and also surrounded by the repetitive deposition of new bone. The osteophytic new bones showed strong birefringence under polarizing microscope, and were gradually elongated and anastomosed with each other to form trabecular bony networks which became proper stress-baring structures for dental implant. Their marrow stromal tissues were composed of loose connective tissue which was well vascularized but rarely infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The present study compared the histological features of excellent bony remodeling between xenogenic and autogenous bone grafts. Although the ratio of excellent bony remodeling in xenogenic bone graft was still low, 13.1%, the recent advance of xenogeic bone products was remarkable in biological aspect and almost comparable to the autogenous bones. Therefore, it was suggested that the xenogenic bone graft will be applicable to the bone regeneration procedures for dental implant with beneficial output in the near future.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws(BRONJ). The clinical and radiographic features of 27 patients diagnosed with BRONJ from 2008 to 2012 were evaluated on the basis of the charts and panoramic radiographs and cone beam computed tomographs. As for clinical features, the following contents were evaluated; type of dental treatments before occurrence of BRONJ, the cause of taking bisphosphonate medicine, undergoing dental treatment, interval between dental treatments and symptom expression. As for radiological features, location of BRONJ, size of bone destructions and sclerosing of the surrounding bone, locational relationship between mandibular canal and inferior border of bone destruction, and effect on the maxillary sinus. In clinical features, extraction was done in 18 patients(66.7%), as the most common dental treatment before occurrence of BRONJ. The most common cause of taking bisphosphonate medicine was osteoporosis(20 pateints, 70.4%). The patients treated during bisphosphonate administration was 17(63.0%). The interval between dental treatments and symptom in the most patients(14 patients, 51.8%) was within 1 month. In radiological features, sequestrum was seen in 11 patients(40.7%) and bony sclerosing in 15(55.6%). The mean width of sclerosing was 32.9±12.4mm and mean height 17.5±4.4mm. Bone destruction invaded to inferior border of mandibular canal in 88.2%(15 among 17 mandibles),. Maxillary sinusitis was diagnosed in 57.1% among the evaluated maxillae(4 among 11 maxillae). In diagnosing BRONJ, clinicians should be cautious about medical history of patients and have well-knowledge of radiographic features.
This study aimed to compare the mandible inferior cortical bone thickness before and after orthognathic surgery on panoramic radiographs. Among 1092 orthognathic surgery patients, 37(12male, 25 female, average age 23.8 yrs± 4.4) were selected who underwent mandible inferior cortex contouring. The total mandible sides which underwent inferior cortex contouring were 62. The mandible inferior cortical bone thickness was measured below the mesial root of the first molar tooth. The mandible inferior cortical bone thickness was 3.49mm± 0.6mm before orthognathis surgery and 1.92 mm± 0.88 mm after surgery, with statistically significant difference between the two(p<.05). The mean contouring amount was 1.57 mm± 0.8 mm. Mandible inferior cortex contouring are often included in orthognathic surgery.
Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor characterized with benign ameloblastic cells islands and malignant mesenchymal component. While two-thirds of AFS seem to arise de novo, but one-third develops from recurrent ameloblastic fibroma (AF) or ameloblastic fibro-odontomas (AFO). Pathological distinction of malignant transformation is essential for appropriate treatment. The patient was a 28 years old man. Since the primary tumor was excised, the mass recurred 2 years later. The recurrent tumor was diagnosed as AFS. Chief complaint was pain in the right mandible. Computer tomography finding revealed multilocular intrabony lesion with radiopaque substance in the primary lesion. In the recurrent lesion cortical bone destruction was found. Microscopically, both the primary and recurrent lesions showed benign ameloblastic follicles with myxoid or highly cellular mesenchymal proliferation. The histological difference between primary and recurrent lesions were that foci of dental hard tissue composed of enamel and dentin were found only in the primary lesion, whereas nuclear pleomorphism was aggrevated in the recurrent lesion. The histological criteria determining malignancy were discussed.
Pilomatricoma is the second most common benign dermal-subcutaneous tumor of the head and neck region, after epidermoid cyst, originating from the outer sheath cells of the hair follicle. It can be easily treated with surgical excision. However, it is a relatively unknown skin lesion to maxillofacial surgeons. Therefore, we report a case of pilomatricoma occuring inferolateral area of the parotid gland in a 54-year-old man; with a review of the relevant literature.