Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the most significant obstacles in various cancer treatment, and this process often involves dysregulation of the number of micro-RNAs. The aim of this study was to explore the role of miR-4708 on the regulation of MDR-1 expression and the regulation of multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-4708 directly binds MDR-1 3’-UTR and down-regulated reporter luciferase activity. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1 were significantly decreased following miR-4708 overexpression. Additionally, the accumulation of rhodamine-123 in paclitacel resistant FaDu cells following miR-4708 transfection was significantly increased compared with control, indicating that the efflux capacity was reduced. These results demonstrated that miR-4708 could be involved in the regulation of MDR via targeting MDR-1 and may provide a potential strategy for reversing drug resistance in oral cancer.
Coffee is one of the most familiar beverages to modern human adults, but its bio-physiological effect has not been clearly elucidated. It was known that more than one thousand chemicals were included in the ordinary coffee extract. Among them, the caffein and chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acids) are most abundant and have been investigated by many authors so far. In order to know the real cellular effect of whole coffee extract elements, the dialyzed coffee extract (DCE)1) was made to get coffee elements less than 1000 Da molecular weight, which are freely absorable through gastrointestinal tract. It was directly treated in the culture of RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage lineage. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with DCE equivalent to 2.5 cups of coffee (DCE-2.5), DCE-5, and DCE-10 for 12 hours, and their protein extracts were examined by histological observation and immunoprecipitation high performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC). RAW 264.7 cells differently expressed the proliferation-related proteins depending on the dose of DCE. DCE-2.5 and DCE-5 enhanced the cellular growth of RAW 264.7 cells by increasing the expression of β-actin, PCNA, Ki-67, MPM2, MAX, cMyc, E2F-1, and Rb-1, and by decreasing the expression of MAD and p21. These proliferation-related proteins were rarely affected by DCE-10. DCE-2.5 and DCE-5 induced the cellular proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells by the signaling of E2F-1 and cMyc, respectively, but these cellular effects almost disappeared in DCE-10. Therefore, it was presumed that the low dose of coffee, DCE-2.5 and DCE-5 might be effective for the proliferation of murine macrophages, RAW264.7 cells, contrast to the high dose of coffee, DCE-10. It was also suggested that the low dose of DCE-2.5 and DCE-5 be helpful to increase the innate immunity in vivo by increasing the cell number of macrophages in contrast to the high dose of DCE-10.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the distribution of Candida species in patients with oral disease and clarify the distinction of Candida culture test according to its isolation technique. 75 samples was isolated from 42 patients who visited Chonnam National University Dental Hospital due to oral disease from December 2015 to August 2016. For isolating the candida sampling, saliva sampling and oral swabbing were used. Acquired sampling was cultured in CHROMagar Candida Culture Medium, which indicates the candida species as color. Of the 42 patients, C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species in 39 patients. For 17 patients out of 21 who underwent saliva sampling and oral swabbing simultaneously, oral swabbing was quantitatively underestimated comparing to saliva sampling. 12 samples in 21 samples having particular Candida species were not isolated by oral swabbing. Considering the possibility of fungal infection in various oral disease, it is recommended to perform not only oral swabbing but saliva sampling when isolating Candida.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects and the sensitivity of antifungal therapy for patients with oral candidiasis and to investigate the relationship among the signs & symptoms of patients and the ratio change of Candida species to antifungal therapy. Candida fungus culture test with ChromeIDTM Candida agar (CAN2) was carried out more than twice for 10 patients who visited Oral Medicine department of Chonnam National University Dental Hospital during the period from Dec. 2015 to Aug. 2016. After culturing the smear sample before and after antifungal therapy in ChromeIDTM Candida agar (CAN2), the number of colonies was counted to compare. Patients were divided into 5 group according to the therapeutic effects of the antifungal agents used: 1) high susceptibility to nystatin, 2) low susceptibility to nystatin, 3) high susceptibility to fluzonazole, 4) low susceptibility to fluzonazole, and 5) increased ratio of new Candida species. Although nystatin is used as first-line therapy in oral candidiasis, it is desirable to use fluconazole if patients had a history of the low sensitivity to nystatin or chemotherapy. Even if the patient's symptoms and signs are improved, there is a possibility of oral candidiasis recurring, so that clinicians should be careful during the treatment with antifungal agents.
Schwannoma, benign neoplasia derived from schwann cell, is rare tumor, and prevalent in tongue, palate, floor of mouth and buccal mucosa. Thirty-six-year-old male with asymptomatic protrusion of mandible angle was evaluated. We surgically removed the mass and histological examination gave the diagnosis of ancient schwannoma. We report a case of ancient schwannoma in masseter muscle and review of literature.
The occurrence of atypical lipomatous tumor of the head and neck is rare, and clinical and histologically differential diagnosis of the tumor is needed for other similar diseases. Herein we report atypical lipomatous tumor arising in neck area. And literature review was done. Complete excision with negative margins followed by long-term follow-up is recommended as the treatment of choice for these uncommon entities.