Heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are a highly toxic metal that affects a variety of cellular events, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in animals as well as in human. The exposed heavy metals significantly affected the development and health in pubertal period. However, it is not clear how the toxicity of heavy metals in pubertal affects comparing in adults. To determine the effects of heavy metals on pubertal and adults, heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury were exposed to in pubertal and adults mice for 48 and 72h. Results showed that mice exposed to heavy metals for several hours induced overall tissue and organ damage. Especially, blood vessels of the most organ were more increased in adult mice compared to pubertal mice. And for morphologic alteration, secretary organs such as salivary gland and kidney were affected the most. Taken together, exposing to heavy metal in mice altered the blood vessels. In addition, the adverse effects of cadmium and mercury were more severe in adult mouse than puberty mouse. Further study is needed to focus on endothelial cells for more precise its mechanism
Dibenzylideneacetone (DBA), an analogue of curcumin has been shown to have anti-cancer activity in a variety of tumor cell lines. However, the anti-cancer activity of DBA and its molecular mechanism in HN22 oral cancer cell line have not been fully explored. The effects of DBA on anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity were evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion assay, 4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that the treatment of DBA to HN22 cells exerted anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities and the activity was accompanied by a decrease in Sp1 protein, Sp1 mRNA and its promoter activity. DBA also reduced the expression level of Sp1 protein and caused apoptotic cell death in HN22 cells simultaneouly. Phosphorylation of ERK and JNK were regulated by DBA whereas phosphorylation of p38 was not altered. Overall, our results suggest that the regulation of Sp1 activities and ERK/JNK are involved in DBA-induced apoptosis and DBA can be a promising anticancer drug candidate for the treatment of oral cancer.
The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of tooth brushing patterns before and after education with a newly invented toothbrush. All participants performed toothbrushing on left lower first molar teeth for 10 seconds, using Modified bass method with the Newly invented toothbrush before education. After recording the brushing pattern, the participants were randomly classified into 1) Tell, 2) Tell-Show and 3) Tell-Show-Do group. After their education, toothbrushing patterns were recorded again. A comparative statistical analysis with a professional group was done by a one sample t-test. Each motion of toothbrushing was represented by Roll, Pitch and Yaw directions and pressure. After toothbrushing education, the Pitch, Roll direction and the value of pressure in all groups showed significantly similarity to the professional group. The Yaw direction appears to be improved after education, but the delineated motion was not considered to represent the Modified bass method. The patterns of each group were similar to the professional group as follows; Tell < Tell-Show < Tell-Show-Do. There was general evidence of higher educational effects by telling, monitoring and practical training. Finally, toothbrushing patterns were able to be analyzed by the Newly invented toothbrush correctly and quickly. This will contribute to the establishment of correct toothbrushing habits through public use.
Bioactive peptides function effectively with a minimal amount compared to proteins. Recently SPARC related modular calcium binding 1 (SMOC1) has been implicated in regulating osteoblast differentiation and limb and eye development. In this study we synthesized a peptide covering 16 amino acids derived from the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain of SMOC1, and its effects on proliferation and osteoblast differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were examined. Treatment of SMOC1 peptide did not modulate proliferation of BMSCs. However, mineralization of BMSCs was significantly increased with a dose dependent manner. Consistently expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes including type 1 collagen and osteocalcin was also dose dependently increased. Taken together, these results suggest that peptide derived from the EC domain of SMOC1 recapitulates at least partially osteogenic function of SMOC1.
From ancient soldier to mordern athletes, it has been discussed that some oral appliance have enhanced performance and decreased stress or improve strength. Since mouth guard was used by Italien Boxer on 1930’s for prevent of orofacial injury, some investigators have researched the co-relationship between jaw position and strength. This experiment was performed to study the relationship between mouth guard and E.M.G. 20 Taekwondo students were participated in this study. They were wearing Mouth guard and checked Brachialis physical activity by E.M.G. The muscle activity of mouth guard wearing group was higher than that of non-wearing group.
The juvenile ossifying fibroma, differentiated from the large group of ossifying fibroma based on the patient’s age, common sites, and clinical characteristics, is a rare but locally aggressive benign tumor with high recurrence rate. Herein, we report a case of juvenile ossifying fibroma located in the right mandible, which is an uncommon site. A 8-years- old male child presented to the pediatric unit of our institution with swelling on the right mandible. Radiographically, it was presented as an expanded and radiolucent lesion. Histology revelaed hypercellular fibroblastic proliferation with anastomosing osteoid trabeculae with rounded, strongly basophilic calcified mass rimmed by osteoblasts. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up is advised