It compared quality characteristics for the stone surface treatment system and its products. With the result, the flame burner equipment was mainly used to the surface treatment of granite, but it occurred greatly the high temperature, the rock fragment, the noise and dust. For the other side, the whetstone polishing machine for the polishing was a maintenance for the specific physical properties of stone, and it did not occur the stone fragment and the dust. The durability of the stone products due to the flame burner was investigated with that it falls to 20~25% more than the surface treatment by the whetstone polishing. Share's hardness of the polishing products in the durability test showed more greatly index than the flame burner and conventional product. The polishing products of Pochon stone in the case of the abrasion resistance showed great more 15% than the general products, more 9% than the products by the flame burner.
There is boner process of stone manufacturing to become quality down of stone to consolidated micro crack appearance of stone surface and biotite by fire that is to be route process in stone surface by flame of LPG. And then, it is develop that stone surf
To comparison the surface treatment methods of stone board materials, the results of Dorry's abrasive test were 23.4 for water-jet system and 18.9 for flame-burner system. Therefore abrasive hardness, the stone board materials by the water-jet system was greater than one by flame-jet system. As a result of Shore's hardness test, the stone board materials by water-jet system was twice greater than one by flame-jet system. Authors carried out microscopic observation to survey a defection of the composition minerals for two methods, but all of the both methods have not founded a defection. Therefore, the stone board materials by water-jet system was greater durability than one by flame-jet for the surface treatment methods.
Background: The growth process of ginseng seedlings is very important in producing good quality ginseng. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different microclimates on the growth characteristics of ginseng seedlings in a multi-layer bed facility.
Methods and Results: Ginseng seedlings were cultivated in a three-layer bed facility. The air temperatures on the first and second floors were similar, while that on the third floor was about 1 - 4℃ higher than that on the other floors. The vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was higher inside than on the outside of the facility, and that on third floor was the highest in the multi-layer bed system. The photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and growth characteristics of ginseng seedlings did not significantly differ among the three floors. The yield of ginseng seedlings was the highest at 721 g/1.62 ㎡ on the first floor
Conclusions: It was found that microclimate plays an important role in growing ginseng seedlings in multi-layer bed facilities, and therefore proper environmental control is important. In addition, producing ginseng seedlings using multi-layer bed facilities is a technology that is expected to provide a way to overcome climate change and stabilize ginseng production.
Background : Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is a multi-year-cultivated plant that causes many insects and disease damage during the growing season. The Ginseng Rain-sheltered Shade House is one of the efficient cultivation techniques as reducing the damages caused by natural disaster such as blight, high temperature & humidity, dry, and heavy rain & snow. This study was conducted to investigate the growth characteristics of 4-years-old ginseng using rain-sheltered shade house suitable shading materials for the Gyeongsangbuk-do.
Methods and Results : The rain-sheltered shade house shading materials were PE film with layered polyethylene net 90%, Light diffusion film with layered polyethylene net 75%, blue-white duplicated film. In order to determine proper shading materials of the rain-sheltered shade house, ginseng growth characteristics such as plant length, stem diameter, leaf length, root length and root diameter were investigated at 4-years-old ginseng. As a result, the evaluations of aerial part growth by measurements were good in the following order: PE film + polyethylene net 90%, Blue-white duplicated film and light diffusion film + polyethylene net 75%. The evaluations of root weight by measurements were heavy in the following order: Blue-white duplicated film, PE film + polyethylene net 90% and light diffusion film + polyethylene net 75%. The net photosynthetic rate was higher in blue-white duplicated film than other shading materials treatments during growth season including summer high-temperature period.
Conclusion : In the 4-years-old ginseng cultivation in Gyeongsangbuk-do using the rain-sheltered shade house, aerial part growth in PE film + polyethylene net 90% was better than other shading materials. In addition, root weight in Blue-white duplicated film was heavier than other shading materials. It will be possible to know which shading material is the most suitable for Gyeongsangbuk-do area after further growth.
Background : Foliar fertilizer materials are used in the field of ginseng farming to enhance the growth of ginseng. The law for ginseng industry prohibits the use of chemical fertilizer as a material for growing ginseng, but in recent years, various organic materials derived from natural materials have been produced and used in farming sites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer on the growth and soil properties of ginseng during continuous use.
Methods and Results : For the test materials, native seedlings were used and the amino acid solution, liquid silicate, microbial liquid and fermentation enzyme were treated from 2 to 5– year-old ginseng after transplantation. The test plots were carried out to 3 repetitions by randomized block design. The area of one plot was 3.24 ㎡. The treatments were foliar application three times at intervals of 10 days from the late of May when leaf development was completed. The chemical properties of each foliar fertilizer pH was the highest at 9.63 for liquid silicate and lowest at 5.85 for amino acids. Ammonium nitrate had the highest amino acid content (56 ㎎/ℓ). Phosphorus was the highest with 113.7 ㎎/ℓ of fermentation enzyme. As a result of foliar fertilization for 4-years up to 5-years of ginseng, the pH was similar in soil chemical properties. EC and nitrate nitrogen contents tended to be higher in foliar application than in non-treatment. In the photosynthesis of ginseng, fermentation enzyme and microbial treatment tended to be high. Thickness of ginseng leaf was the thickest in microbial treatment. Microbial treatment was the highest in the underground part. Soil chemical properties were also affected but there was no significant change to inhibit the growth of ginseng.
Conclusion : The treatments of the foliar fertilizer were more effective than the no treatment on the growth of ginseng. Among the foliar fertilizers distributed on the market, those derived from natural products can be used in ginseng cultivation.
Background : The chlorophyll fluorescence imaging as non-destructive imaging methods have been used widely for efficiently early detection of plant responses to various stresses. The information from images acquired from different condition has the potential to generate specific signatures for particular stresses. Light-energy absorbed by plants is distributed over three competing processes: photosynthesis, thermal dissipation and chlorophyll fluorescence emission. An increase in Chl-FI thus implies a decrease in photosynthesis. The stresses in growing stage will change the efficacy of photosynthesis. As a example, Chl-FI of plant infections was carried out previously for a number of different viral and fungal plant–pathogen systems. Therefore, image can be used for differentiation of various stress index.
Methods and results : 2-years-old ginseng plants were transplanted to plastic pots and each stress factors were treated. The stress factors used in this study were high temperature, low temperature, fungicide, and fungal pathogen. High temperature stress was induced by placing pots inside incubator adjusted at 35℃. For treatment of low temperature stress, ginseng plants were stored at 5℃ refrigerator for 5 minutes. Pathogen stress was carried to inoculate mycelial disk. Alternaria panax was inoculated potato-dextrose-medium and cultured for 10 days at 25℃. Mycelial disk obtained from cultured plate were placed on the one leaf of ginseng. Azoxystrobin wp was diluted 500, 1,000 times in tap water and sprayed to ginseng plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence image was acquired from each plant that stress treated and analyzed with sigma plot software.
Conclusion : Important value, Fv/Fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), Fp (peak fluorescence during the initial phase of the operating efficiency of the Kautsky effect), NPQ-lss (steady-state, non-photochemical), etc., were significantly changed by variable stress index. But it was impossible to differentiate kind of stress by acquired value.
Background : Multi-stage system were used for development of stable ginseng seedling production. Bed-soil for the production of ginseng seedling in the multi-stage was similar to the conventional bed-soil but the weight of the bed-soil was high and the efficiency of operation in the multi-stage was lowered. In this study, the yield and quality of ginseng seedling was investigated by commercial lightweight bed-soil in the multi-stage facilities, and the possibility of application of lightweight bed-soil.
Methods and Results : This study was carried out by a 3-stage cultivation bed using a 50 ㎜ sandwich panel in a house shaded with 85% light-shielding net. The width of the cultivating bed was 90 ㎝, the height was 30 ㎝, and the height of each stage was 50 ㎝. In the first and second stages, the amount of light was insufficient, so two rows of fluorescent lamps were installed and the third stage was used natural light. Ginseng seeds were sown on the cultivating bed in November 2016, and ginseng seeds (native species) were sown with a density of 3 × 3 ㎝. The chemical properties of lightweight bed-soil were pH 5.11, and EC 0.76 dS/m. It was suitable for ginseng seedling cultivation. The bulk density was 0.21 Mg/㎥. Among the growth characteristics of the ginseng seedlings, the root length was the longest as 17.0 ㎝ in the conventional cultivation, and the second stage was the longest at 14.8 ㎝ in the multi-stage facility. The root diameter in the multi-stage system was 0.2 - 0.4 ㎜ thicker than the conventional one. Root weights of lightweight bed-soil were similar to those of conventional cultivation. The yield of ginseng seedlings in the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd stage was 721.3 g, 692.0 g, and 394.7 g/1.62 ㎡ respectively.
Conclusion : In the production of ginseng seedling using multi-stage facilities, the commercial bed-soil was better than the conventional bed-soil (light, workability). The differences in yields in the multi-stage facilities can be overcome if the growth management such as moisture management is more systematic. If we develop the technology to reuse the bed-soil after harvesting the ginseng seedling, it will be economical and able to supply to farmers.
Background : Ginseng is becoming depleted of virgin cultivation area due to the problem of replant failure. Ginseng farmers have become more burdensome in operating expense because they are more likely to go out to other cities in search of virgin cultivation area. In addition, the quality and yield of ginseng cultivated in one place for many years depend on the rapidly changing climate every year. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for continuous production of ginseng in a facility by solving the problems of replant failure and investigating basic soil composition and growth characteristics of ginseng for 2 - 6 years. Methods and Results : This study was carried out in a 90 ㎝ wide, 50cm deep and 22 m long bed made of sandwich panels in a 90% shaded facility for ginseng cultivation. In the lower part of the bed, a 100 ㎜ pipe for drainage and steam sterilization was installed, and the pearlite was filled at a height of 100 ㎜ as a drainage material. The soil for ginseng cultivation was put into the bed. Soil composition was tested in five combinations including virgin soil, yokto, peat moss, pearlite, and vermiculite with different composition ratios including control. The native seedlings were transplanted and grown from 2 years to 6 years. In the growth characteristics and yield of ginseng, the best treatments were virgin soil 55%, yokto 10%, Peatmoss 25%, Perlite 5% and 5% vermiculite. Also, the bulk density was reduced by 30% compared to the control. Soil pH and EC tended to increase slightly during all treatments. In the ginsenoside analysis, there were no unusual results for the soil composition and they were almost similar. Conclusion : As a method to continuously grow ginseng in the facility, we tried to grow ginseng by filling the soil in the bed. Soil composition should be within the range of chemistry and physics suitable for cultivation of ginseng, and it is necessary to analyze the economy and reduce the operating expense. In the future, researches on soil disinfection and nutrient management methods for continuous use should be continued.
Background : This study was carried out to investigate the changes of the growth of ginseng in the house when the light intensity was increased. Three shading screens were used: shading materials 85%, 77%, and 55% net. Changes in the growth of ginseng and the quality of red ginseng were investigated in these shading materials. Methods and Results : The test site was a three house constructed in the Punggi Ginseng Research Institute, Gyeongsangbuk - do Agricultural Research and Extension Services. The entrance to the house is located east-west, and the structure is double steel frame. The inside of the house is covered with vinyl, and 85%, 75%, 55% shading net is installed for each shading treatment. From the end of June to the middle of August, a 55% shading net was double covered to reduce the high temperature damage. The test material was grafted on March 20, 2013. The management of the irrigation water was from 30 kPa to 10 kPa. The aM-21A data log of Wise Sensing Co., Ltd. was used to measure the cultivation environment in the house. Photosynthesis was measured using Lci Compact Photosyntheisi System, adc, UK. Surveys were carried out in accordance with the inspection standards of the Rural Development Administration. The data were analyzed statistically using SPSS. Conclusion : The summer temperature of shading method was more than 2℃ higher than other treatments in 55% shading treatment and more than 6℃ in autumn. The light intensity of 90 μmol/s/㎡ was lower than that of August, and the light intensity was higher than 400 μmol at the end of September. The 55% shading method showed twice as much light in summer and more than four times in autumn. The amount of photosynthesis increased due to the light intensity of 55% treatment, especially in the morning of May. In the light of shading method, 85% light shading method showed the best growth at 2 years, but 55% at 3 years and more, and 5 years at 5 years.
Background : The area of ginseng cultivation has nearly exhausted in the main ginseng growing area in Korea but virgin fields need for ginseng cultivation due to continuous cropping injury. To count for the decrease of the virgin fields of ginseng cultivation, technical improvement to increase, or maintain the amount of harvest are necessary in ginseng cultivation. The Ginseng Rain-sheltered Shade House is one of the efficient cultivation techniques as reducing the damages caused by natural disaster such as blight, high temperature & humidity, dry, and heavy rain & snow. However a soil description needs to be developed to reduce the period of re-cultivation because ginseng has to be cultivated at the only one ginseng rain-sheltered house without soil or cultivation change. Methods and Results : This study was carried out in the ginseng rain-sheltered house where ginseng had cultivated and harvested one time. Each section of Cultivation of sudan grass+flooding, rice straw+flooding, and flooding was covered with vinyl and then, all areas were solarized through the summer season. The soil temperature was inspected at 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, and 20cm below ground. As a result, the soil temperature of the place with vinyl covered and solarized was approached to 40℃ regularly during the period of high temperature in July and August. After the solarization, the inspection result of Cylindrocarpon destructans spore density checked by Real time PCR was that C. destructans spores were not found at the place where sudan glass+flooding and rice straw+flooding were used. However, the detected number of C. destructans spores in the inspection condition was roughly 9 at the soil samples from the fields which were flooded and solarized, and 33 at those from the repeatedly cultivated fields. The evaluations of aerial part growth by measurements were good in the following order: Sudan grass+flooding, rice straw+flooding, and flooding. Conclusion : The purpose of this study was to reduce the period of ginseng re-cultivation in a ginseng rain-sheltered shade house. The incidence rate of the pathogens distantly decreased by the treatments of sudan glass + flooding, rice straw+flooding, and solarization.
Background : This experiment was carried out to improve the labor-intensive task to construct of the traditional ginseng shading system in Korea. In this experiment the selected shading materials was new 6 kinds that HDPE - knitted- monofilament and taped PE Net, with taking into account of the amount of light and the amount of leakage to screen the UV stabilized 0.3% - 0.6%. Compared with the traditional shading material, the black-shading material (wt. 200g/㎡) and the yellow shading material (wt. 300g/㎡) was suitable for the ginseng growing environments in Korea. Methods and Results : The installation of shading system was the 45 degree slope -2 meter height from the ground with the selected shading materials for the wide structure ginseng cultivation. Temperature and light intensity was measured with a week interval from the surface to a height of 30cm. The two kinds of the 1st selected materials and the traditional black + blue two layer shading materials, aluminum screen, Canada Gintec shading material, total 5 kinds of materials were installed in wide structure. The growing environmental analysis was measured using data logs (watchdog 1600series). Conclusion : In the first selection of shading materials for Ginseng wide structure, the levels of light intensity were higher in order of blue-shading> Aluminum- shading> black-shading order. The temperatures of the under wide structures were lower in order of the black-shading< aluminum-shading screen< blue-shading order, especially the temperature of the black shading material was lower than the outside temperature. For the second selection of shading material of the ginseng wide structure, the black and yellow shading material were superior to the other materials, in the amount of light shading material and growing conditions and the degree of leakage etc. The temperatures of mid-May in wide structures of ginseng cultivation were higher in order of aluminum-screen> Canada shading materials (Gintec Co.) 2 layer material> Yellow shading> black shading order, and also the amounts of light intensity also was shown to be with the same manner
Background : The production of healthy ginseng seedling is a critical part of growing 5-6-year-old fresh ginseng. Recently, for the problem of replant failure, it becomes more and more difficult to find first planted field for ginseng seedling cultivation. In this situation, This study was conducted to examine the possibility of seedling production practices of ginseng by utilizing the multi-beds cultivation system as a way to produce ginseng seedling stably. Methods and Results : This experiment was conducted by installing a 3-layed cultivation beds using 50㎜ sandwich panels. As the 1st and 2nd beds get insufficient amount of light, fluorescent lights were installed in 2 rows to further lighten up. And the 3rd bed used natural light. The bed soil used was formulated by mixing saprolite, yakto and peat moss. The control was cultivated under natural light on 1-layed bed with commercial bed soil for ginseng seedling. The commercial bed soil had pH 7.24, higher than the standard of permission, 6.5; and its calcium and sodium contents were 10.7, and 0.85 cmol+/㎏, respectively, higher than the standard. The available phosphate concentration was 34.0㎎/㎏, lower than the appropriate level of 100 ㎎/㎏. The mixing bed soil also had pH 7.69, higher than the standard but its nitrate and phosphate were within the appropriate range. The intra-facility light quantities of the 1st and 2nd beds were constant at around 100 μmol during days. But the light quantity of the 3rd bed was 51.4 μmol in average daily value. The roots of the 1st-3rd beds were found to weigh 0.58 – 0.73 g while those of the control group, about 0.47g to show heavier root weight of the multi-beds cultivation ginseng than that of the control. As for the yield, the control showed 145 ㎏/10a whereas the 1st-3rd beds showed higher levels between 183 – 228 ㎏/10a. Conclusion : In the multi-beds cultivation of ginseng seedling, fluorescent lamps seem to have provided sufficient light as an artificial light source. The soil for ginseng seedling production is different from ginseng cultivation field soil, additional study will be also necessary to set up the physiochemical range of bed soil for ginseng seedling.
Background : Ginseng farmers prefer first planted field because of replant failure. But the accumulation of nutrients is higher in the first planted field due to using large amounts of chemical fertilizers and manure. The higher phosphate concentration in preparation field decreased emergence ratio and occurred leaf chlorosis in ginseng. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology for reducing phosphate concentration in preparation field of ginseng. Methods and Results : This study was performed in farm's fild located Yeongju in 2015. Treatment of plots consisted of sudangrass, maize, deep plowing + sudangrass and microbes(Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Bacillus subtilis, streptomyces griseus) + sudangrass. sudangrass and maize were sown in early May to 5kg / 10a. Microbes diluted 500 times were treated to drench the soil before sowing crops(400L/10a). The main survey was yield of crop, soil chemical properties, reduction ratio of phosphate and changes in available phosphate. Reduction ratio of phosphate in the plot of maize and Rhodobacter sphaeroides were 27.9% and 24.3%, respectively, which were higher 2∼5% than the control plot. Fresh weight yield was the highest with 11.1ton / 10a in the plot of maize and ratio of dry matter was the highest with 27% in the plot of maize. Conclusion : The phosphate removal ability of maize was better than sudangrass in phosphate accumulation soil. Subsoil reversed using excavators used by some farmers could not mitigate of phosphate and salts concentration in preparation field. The soil that phosphate concentration is more than 1,000mg/kg is required a long-term management.
Background : Every year, Damping-off is repeated in the germination time of ginseng on April to May. This study was carried out to find out the cause of damping-off and the optimum eco-friendly product for suppression of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani on Panax ginseng. Methods and Results : Bikona (Bioagent), Lime-Sulfur Mixture, Lime-Bordeux Mixture, NaOcl, and Fludioxonil were tested in farmer's field located in Youngju and Bonghwa, Gyeongbuk. Experimental plots (20m×0.9m) of 4-year-old ginseng fields were artificially infested with 2kg and 3kg in fresh weight of inoculum in Youngju and Bonghwa, respectively. Growth characteristics in all the plots of eco-friendly product were similar and had no difference significantly. Damping-off incidences were 0.8% at the polt of NaOcl in Bonghwa, which showed the lowest in all the plots. Ginseng yield in the plot of NaOcl and Fludioxonil were 1.75 kg and 1.71 kg per 1.62 ㎡, which increased 10∼12% compared to the control plot. Conclusion : Sodium hypochlorite as eco-friendly materials for control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani in ginseng represented a similar performance with Fludioxonil and seems to be utilized in the farm.
Background : The Ginseng has been one of the crops that represents Korea, and the main export items in the 1960s, Now it occupies the first exports of agricultural products. The Eco-friendly cultivation of Ginseng was difficult for various reasons. But the cultivation in Green House can be suppressed disease occurrence, when utilizing an environmentally friendly materials has the advantage that can dramatically increase the income by possible organic production. For other crops, it made up a lot of studies on water management, But the studies on water management of ginseng is somewhat lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish appropriate soil- moisture-management-systems within the house of ginseng cultivation. Methods and Results : The type of house is a double steel structure. The first layer was PE film, the second layer was the blue shading net and 75% black shading net. The Soil texture was silt loam and the Soil Series was YEONGOK Series. Install the house on the adjacent paddy soil and upland soil, and planting on April 30, 2011 which was cultivated by the straw mulching. The irrigation start point was the 40, 30, 20kpa, and the end point was treated with 15, 10kpa. Soil moisture measurements were determined by tension meter(Jet Fill) depth 20cm in soil. Growth and Yield Survey was conducted in accordance with the Rural Development Administration (RDA) standard research. Statistical analysis of the results were analyzed using the Microsoft's Excel 2003. Conclusion : In a survey due to differences in soil traits and Irrigation point, from 2 years to 4years of root weight and yield of Ginseng were heavier in the upland, especially 30kpa irrigation point treatment was heaviest than the other treatments. From 5year to 6 Years of ginseng has showed heavier in paddy soil, the most treatment was 30kpa- 15kpa irrigation point. This trend was the same in upland soil. Soil moisture management in the case of silt loam, the humid-state-control was more advantageous than dry-state control in upland and paddy soil.