To prepare Mn4+-activated K2TiF6 phosphor, a precipitation method without using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was designed. In the synthetic reaction, to prevent the decomposition of K2MnF6, which is used as a source of Mn4+ activator, NH5F2 solution was adopted in place of the HF solution. Single phase K2TiF6:Mn4+ phosphors were successfully synthesized through the designed reaction at room temperature. To acquire high luminance of the phosphor, the reaction conditions such as the type and concentration of the reactants were optimized. Also, the optimum content of Mn4+ activator was evaluator based on the emission intensity. Photoluminescence properties such as excitation and emission spectrum, decay curve, and temperature dependence of PL intensity were investigated. In order to examine the applicability of this material to a white LED, the electroluminescence property of a pc-WLED fabricated by combining the K2TiF6:Mn4+ phosphor with a 450 nm blue-LED chip was measured.
In physical engineering, the turbulent flow on the surface roughness is very important. The roughness of the surface changed the distance of the interval. The roughness coefficient occurred with increasing turbulence intensities was stronger. The turbulence intensity away from the roughness in the shape was zero. The variation of turbulence intensity at the experimental flow conditions change was not affected.
A spherical Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+ phosphor for use in white-light-emitting diodes was synthesized using a liquid-state reaction with two precipitation stages. For the formation of phosphor from a precursor, the calcination temperature was 1,100˚C. The particle morphology of the phosphor was changed by controlling the processing conditions. The synthesized phosphor particles were spherical with a narrow size-distribution and had mono-dispersity. Upon excitation at 395 nm, the phosphor exhibited an emission band centered at 497 nm, corresponding to the 4f65d→4f7 electronic transitions of Eu2+. The critical quenching-concentration of Eu2+ in the synthesized Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+ phosphor was 5 mol%. A phosphor-converted LED was fabricated by the combination of the optimized spherical phosphor and a near-UV 390 nm LED chip. When this pc-LED was operated under various forward-bias currents at room temperature, the pc-LED exhibited a bright blue-green emission band, and high color-stability against changes in input power. Accordingly, the prepared spherical phosphor appears to be an excellent candidate for white LED applications.
In this study, we have modeled a ship or marine structure into a rectangular resistance body and tried to examine surrounding flow characteristics and pressure distributions behind the resistance body experimentally and investigated pressure characteristics by a 3-dimension numerical simulation. As a result, the numerical simulation predictions were shown to compare well with PIV data. and the perpendicular velocity component behind x/H=0 varies in size with the recycle flow shapes formed from the influence of the resistance body, but generally it shows a negative distribution and there is a decreasing pattern as it goes to the down part.
This paper investigates the downwash effect of a rooftop structure (RTS) representing a typical RTS with jet diffusion. The effect of rooftop structure height on the severity of the downwash effect is assessed. As a result, design guidance provided for determining structure height required to avoid the downwash effect.
The present study has measured the velocity distribution in a three-dimensional shape model of the rectangular settling tank using PIV system. The experiment system consists of hi-speed camera, laser and host computer. Reynolds number based on the guide wall height(H=25mm) has been applied during the whole experiments. The results showed that recirculation flow in settling tank exists and a internal flow weakly influenced by Reynolds number at Re=5×103 greater.
Ce3+-doped yttrium aluminum gallium garnet (YAGG:Ce3+), which is a green-emitting phosphor, was synthesizedby solid state reaction using α-phase or γ-phase of nano-sized Al2O3 as the Al source. The processing conditions and thechemical composition of phosphor for the maximum emission intensity were optimized on the basis of emission intensity undervacuum UV excitation. The optimum heating temperature for phosphor preparation was 1550oC. Photoluminescence propertiesof the synthesized phosphor were investigated in detail. From the excitation and emission spectra, it was confirmed that theYAGG:Ce3+ phosphors effectively absorb the vacuum UV of 120-200nm and emit green light positioned around 530nm. Thecrystalline phase of the alumina nanoparticles affected the particle size and the luminescence property of the synthesizedphosphors. Nano-sized γ-Al2O3 was more effective for the achievement of higher emission intensity than was nano-sized α-Al2O3. This discrepancy is considered to be because the diffusion of Al3+ into Y2O3 lattice is dependent on the crystalline phaseof Al2O3, which affects the phase transformation of YAGG:Ce3+ phosphors. The optimum chemical composition, having themaximum emission intensity, was (Y2.98Ce0.02)(Al2.8Ga1.8)O11.4 prepared with γ-Al2O3. On the other hand, the decay time of theYAGG:Ce3+ phosphors, irrespective of the crystalline phase of the nano-sized alumina source, was below 1 ms due to theallowed 5d→4f transition of the Ce3+ activator.
Red-emitting Eu3+-activated (Y0.95-xAlx)VO4 (0<x≤0.12) nanophosphors with the particle size of ~30nm and thehigh crystallinity have been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction. In the synthetic process, deionized water asa solvent and ethylene glycol as a capping agent were used. The crystalline phase, particle morphology, and thephotoluminescence properties of the excitation spectrum, emission intensity, color coordinates and decay time, of the prepared(Y0.95-xAlx)VO4:Eu3+ nanophosphors were compared with those of the YVO4:Eu3+. Under 147nm excitation, (Y0.95-xAlx)VO4nanophosphors showed strong red luminescence due to the 5D0-7F2 transition of Eu3+ at 619nm. The luminescence intensityof YVO4:Eu3+ enhanced with partial substitution of Al3+ for Y3+ and the maximum emission intensity was accomplished at theAl3+ content of 10mol%. By the addition of Al3+, decay time of the (Y,Al)VO4:Eu3+ nanophosphor was decreased in comparisonwith that of the YVO4:Eu3+ nanophosphor. Also, the substitution of Al3+ for Y3+ invited the improvement of color coordinatesdue to the increase of R/O ratio in emission intensity. For the formation of transparent layer, the red nanophosphors werefabricated to the paste with ethyl celluloses, anhydrous terpineol, ethanol and deionized water. By screen printing method, atransparent red phosphor layer was formed onto a glass substrate from the paste. The transparent red phosphor layer exhibitedthe red emission at 619nm under 147nm excitation and the transmittance of ~80% at 600nm.
For possible applications as luminescent materials for white-light emission using UV-LEDs, Ba2Mg(PO4)2:Eu2+ phosphors were prepared by a solid state reaction. The photoluminescence properties of the phosphor were investigated under ultraviolet ray (UV) excitation. The prepared phosphor powders were characterized to from a single phase of a monoclinic crystalline structure by a powder X-ray diffraction analysis. In the photoluminescence spectra, the Ba2Mg(PO4)2:Eu2+ phosphor showed an intense emission band centered at the 584 nm wavelength due to the f-d transition of the Eu2+ activator. The optimum concentration of Eu2+ activator in the Ba2Mg(PO4)2 host, indicating the maximum emission intensity under the excitation of a 395 nm wavelength, was 5 at%. In addition, it was confirmed that the Eu2+ ions are substituted at both Ba2+ sites in the Ba2Mg(PO4)2 crystal. On the other hand, the critical distance of energy transfer between Eu2+ ions in the Ba2Mg(PO4)2 host was evaluated to be approximately 19.3 A. With increasing temperature, the emission intensity of the Ba2Mg(PO4)2:Eu phosphor was considerably decreased and the central wavelength of the emission peak was shifted toward a short wavelength.
We have synthesized Eu3+-doped YVO4 phosphors by using a hydrothermal method and investigatedtheir luminescent properties. Aqueous solutions of Y2O3, V2O5, Eu2O3, and nitric acid with various pH valueswere used as the precursors. The crystallinity, surface condition, and emission characteristics were examinedusing XRD, FT-IR, and photo-excited spectrometer. Eu3+ incorporation followed by the efficient red emissionstrongly depends on the acidity of solution media. The emission intensity becomes stronger as the pH valuesincrease to 7 and then gradually decreases. This phenomenon might be related to the hydroxyl quenchingeffect, which is induced by surface bound OH- groups.
Eu3+-activated R3GaO6 (R=Y, Gd) phosphors were prepared in a conventional solid-state reactionand their optical properties were investigated. These compounds exhibit strong red emission under lightexcitation at 254nm. The emission spectra are dominated by peaks appearing around 610-630nm that areinduced by the electric dipole transition of 5D0→7F2 of Eu3+. In addition, the appropriate CIE (CommissionInternationale de l’clairage) chromaticity coordinates, (x=0.656, y=0.336) for Y3GaO6 and (x=0.655, y=0.334)for Gd3GaO6, become closer to the NTSC (National Television System Committee) standard values. With theoptimized activator concentrations, the maximum emission brightness is approximately 80% of Y2O3:Eu3+typical red-emitting phosphor with improved color purity under an excitation condition of 254nm.