This study examined the factors affecting the bubble generation of a motor driven bubble generator to develop a heating unit using hydrodynamic cavitation. This study also investigated the heat production and thermal efficiency by changing operating conditions. Bubble generation using the 25 ℓ-capacity motor is driven bubble generator was confirmed visually in various experimental conditions: three levels of motor powers(1, 3, 5 HP), two levels of revolutions(1800, 3200 rpm), and two levels of internal pressures of the bubble generator(the atmospheric pressure, pressurized air). After constructing the heating unit, heat production, and thermal efficiency were measured in the following experimental conditions: two levels of motor powers(3, 5 HP) and three levels of water quantities(102, 152, 230 kg). And then specifically temperature increasing rate and specific consumed energy required for the heating unit design were calculated. Bubbles were generated stably at 1,800 rpm and pressure from 0~0.8 bar. When heating water around 30℃, specific temperature increasing rate was maximized at 0.247℃/min and 0.002422℃/min-kg. Thermal efficiencies were 121% with only motor driving power as input energy and 98% with both motors driving power and water circulating pump driving power as input energy. This showed that the heating unit using hydrodynamic cavitation had higher thermal efficiency than the existing combustion boiler. Maximum specific consumed energy was 0.0270 KJ/min-kg-℃. This study confirmed that water can be heated with the heat caused by the explosion of the bubbles generated by hydrodynamic cavitation. And the results of this study could be utilized for commercial use because it showed much higher thermal efficiency than the existing combustion boiler.
Liver cancer represents a major health problem with steadily increasing incidence rates. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death. This study was conducted in order to investigate the gross findings following treatment with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in mice. Sixteen male and female mice (B6C3F1), initially 20 days of age, received intraparietal injection (20 mg/kg three times for a period of two weeks, IP) or were given drinking water (DW) containing 50 ppm DEN; all mice were sacrificed at the 80th week of experiments. Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and HCC were induced in B6C3F1), mice by administration of DEN. The numbers of HCA and HCC were 7.4±1.72 (IP) and 7.2±0.86 (DW) in male mice. However, no significant difference was observed between the DW and IP groups. The numbers of HCA and HCC were 0.67±0.33 (IP) and 2.0±0.63 (DW) in female mice. This study showed a tendency for high incidences of liver tumor with long-term exposure of newborn animals by drinking water.
Background : Perilla frutescens L. is valuable as a medicinal plant as well as a natural medicine and functional food. Limonene perilla collected from various places showed 60% limonene compounds. However biological activity of these accession has not been reported before. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the biological activity of limonene perilla. Methods and Results : Fractional solvent extracts were obtained by using organic solvents such as n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-BuOH, and aqueous solvent from different parts of limonene perilla extracted initially in 70% EtOH. We investigated the effects of limonene perilla on total phenol and flavonoid contents, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), total saponin contents and tyrosinase inhibition activity. Leaves of limonene perilla produced the highest total phenolic contents (29.88 mg·CAE/g), flavonoid (8.39 mg·QE/g) and saponin contents (47.77 mg·GIE/g) than stems and roots of limonene perilla. FRAP of leaves was 823.00±3.58 μM·FeSO4·E/mg. Tyrosinase inhibition activity rate was 40.31% in 70% ethanol extracts from leaves of limonene perilla. Conclusion : This results suggest that leaf of limonene perilla fractions has significant antioxidant activity. Also, limonene perilla could be used as a functional biomaterial in developing cosmetics and functional foods.
Background : Plants are the rich source of antioxidants, which plays a very important role in maintaining human health. Their antioxidant property protects cells of different organs of human beings against free radicals and free radical mediated diseases. Even though, there is lack of knowledge on the antioxidant effect of lutein present in plants. In the present study, lutein was isolated from the GreenTea leaves (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a dietary source. Methods and Results : The procedure adopted for the isolation and purification of lutein using acetone extraction and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is simple and less time consuming. Free radicals scavenging activity of isolated lutein from acetone extract of GreenTea was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power. The isolated lutein scavenged 79% of DPPH radicals at 20 ㎍/㎖ and two fold lower concentration compared to the standard antioxidants (α-tocopherol). No significant differences were found between the reducing power of the lutein and BHT when their concentrations were high. However, significant differences were observed at relatively low concentrations, the reducing power of lutein was isolated from the GreenTea leaves was stronger than those of their acetone extract and standard antioxidants (BHA). Both electron spin resonance (ESR) and in vitro assay confirmed that lutein was isolated from the GreenTea leaves, exhibited a greater capacity for scavenging superoxide (O2 •－) and hydroxyl (OH •) radicals than standard antioxidants β-carotene and α-tocopherol respectively. Conclusion : The results proven that lutein isolated from GreenTea leaves has an efficient antioxidant ability, it could serve as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species.
Background : Lutein, a xanthophyll, consists of chains with 8 conjugated double bounds containing closed rings on each end of the chain. This carotenoid is found in fruits and vegetables, especially dark green leafy vegetables such as green tea. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of purified lutein from green tea on human cancer cell lines containing prostate carcinoma cancer cells (LNCaP). Methods and Results : Prostate carcinoma cancer cells (LNCaP) were cultured and evaluated the inhibitory effect of lutein isolated from green tea compared other carotenoids (β-carotene and lycopene) on cell proliferation. Cyclin D1 and PCNA were evaluated as cell differentiation. In results, PCNA/cyclin regulates the initiation of cell proliferation by mediating DNA polymerase. Under cultural conditions, lycopene remarkably suppressed the PCNA expression prostate cancer cell line LNCaP in higher doses (20 μM - 100 μM) statistically. However, β-carotene and lutein presented the less inhibitory effects on PCNA expression. Determination of PCNA expression in control and treated cells demonstrates that lycopene did affect proliferation in LNCaP cancer cells in dose-dependent manner. However, β-carotene and lutein suppressed the cyclin D1 expression in dose-dependent manner but no in lycopene group. These results indicate that differ carotenoids presented the various suppressive ability of PCNA and cyclin D1 expression in cell proliferation. Conclusion : In conclusion, lutein suppressed the carcinogenesis of induced prostate cancer cell line by acting as a suppressor for inhibiting the expression of cyclin D.
Herb extracts commercially used in Korea were screened for PPAR-γ agonist test and α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Total 16 herb plants had a PPAR-γ agonist activity. Specially, Alisma orientale Juz (108.41%), Ephedra sinica (98.22%), Sasa japonica Makino var. purpurascens Nakai (140.68%), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (106.79%) and Cnidium officinale Makino (113.00%) showed high PPAR-γ agonist activity rate compared with rosiglitazone's (167.46%). And Cornus officinalis S. et Z. (90.3%), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (89.2%), Psoralea corylifolia L. (89.8%), Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe (92.4%) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andr (93.2%), showed high α-glucosidase inhibition rates. These results support previous reports of the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used for diabetes mellitus.
Muscle strength and endurance activities of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer; KG) were compared with those of wild simulated cultivation ginseng (WCG) in mice. Fifty male ICR mice were divided into five groups: A (vehicle); B (WCG 100 mg/kg); C (WCG 500 mg/kg); D (KG 100 mg/kg); E (KG 500 mg/kg). Subsequently, the mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and treadmill test at the 4th and 7th weeks. The glycogen content in the muscle and blood analysis (levels of glucose, triglyceride (TG), IGF-1) were also performed immediately after the last FST and treadmill test at the 7th week. Immobility times in FST were shorter in WCG- than KG-treated groups, and the results of the treadmill tests were also significant except for KG-treated at 100 mg/kg. The glycogen content was increased in both groups with a peak at 500 mg/kg of WCG groups. Serum concentrations of TG and glucose were decreased by administration of KG and WCG and all treated groups showed increase in the level of IGF-1 in serum. These results suggest that KG and WCG supplementations are effective in escalating the muscle strength and endurance.