Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are major pests on greenhouse crops including sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in South Korea. To manage this pest complex effectively, it is fundamental to understand population dynamics and spatial distributions of the pests. In this study, we conducted visual counting and used yellow sticky traps to monitor whitefly and thrips populations in sweet pepper greenhouse (6 × 28 m). The survey was conducted every two weeks over two months. A total of 84 traps were set up at 20cm from the plant top canopy and spaced 1m apart from each other. Leaves were selected randomly from the middle plant canopy for visual counting at the same sampling locations. The trap data indicate that the numbers of whiteflies and thrips increased from 5.50 ± 0.34 to 168.51 ± 14.95 and from 52.40 ± 1.67 to 158.42 ± 7.44 (mean ± SE) per trap, respectively, over the two-month observation period. In general, the spatial distributions of these pests aggregated near the greenhouse entrance with significant positive correlation between the densities of the two species (r = 0.74, P = 0.02). However, the results of visual counting were completely different; either species was rarely found on leaves, even when the trap catches were relatively high at the same locations. That is, there was no correlation between visual counting and sticky trap data sets. The current study will serve as a fundamental step to develop reliable and effective management programs for greenhouse sweet pepper.
Sweet potato whitefly (SPW), Bemisia tabaci, is the most serious pest of greenhouse tomato as a vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus since 2008 in Jeju. This study was conducted for within-plant distribution of SPW nymphs on leaves and the characteristic of spatial distribution of SPW adults using by yellow-color sticky trap in greenhouse-grown tomato plants. The nymphs of SPW were mainly distributed on leaves of mid-lower stratum in three stratum of tomato plant. They were also more distributed on three to four leaflets from basal part in a leaf. Ten plots and three plants per plot were appropriated to estimate of mean density of SPW nymph using by visual inspection in a tomato greenhouse. The more SPW adults were caught on horizontally placed sticky trap above 50～80 cm than vertically placed sticky trap above tomato canopy. The horizontal direction trap should be placed in opened site. SPW adults were shown the aggregated distribution pattern using by Taylor’s power law (TPL) and Iwao’s patchiness regression (IPR) model which are commonly used for spatial distribution pattern analysis. TPL was showed better description than IPR for spatial distribution pattern of SPW adults. The required number of trap tended to decrease according to increase the mean density of SPW adult
Entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia aleyrodis naturally occurred on citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri nymph was often observed in organic citrus orchards, Jeju. The genus Aschersonia is also known to be toxic against scale insects and other pests. However, little is known about artificial media for mass production of spores of Aschersonia species. Grains are excellent sources of media for mass conidia production of various entomopathogenic fungi. The yeast extract, which converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxides and alcohols, contains a large amount of vitamin B complexes which facilitate the carbohydrate metabolism. The more yeast extract content the more conidia production on artificial medium made from commercial corn flour and corn gluten feed. The number of conidium produced on oat, millet, sorghum, and unhulled barley medium containing 1% yeast extract were 1.8, 1.8, 1.6, and 2.1×1010/plate (90mm × 15mm), respectively. However, the greatest yeast effect among four media showed appeared on sorghum medium, which produced 25 times higher spore production than sorghum alone. Furthermore, the conidia from solid sorghum medium could be easily harvested with cell scraper.
Aschersonia aleyrodis was well-known to be a biological control agent for citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri. This entomopathogenic fungus is naturally occurred in organic farming citrus orchards in Jeju. Both lime-sulfur and Bordeaux mixtures are extensively used today to control citrus diseases like citrus melanose and citrus scab, especially in organic farming pest management program. The high concentrated lime-sulfur is also used for pest control such as pink citrus rust mite and scale insects. This study was focused to test the conidial germination and sporulation of Aschersonia aleyrodis on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium containing different concentrations of two fungicides. The conidia of Aschersonia aleyrodis grown on PDA mixed with commercial bordeaux mixtures, CM150-505, at dilution rate 1:200 (water : bordeaux mixture) were well-germinated but not sporulated at all. On the other hand, Aschersonia aleyrodis did not sporulate and germinate on lime sulfur treated PDA medium even at extremely low dilution rate 1:2,048,000 (water : lime sulfur). However, when the mycelial cells grown at 25o C for at least 7 days at soluble starch-tryptone medium were added to PDA, they were well-sporulated even at high dilution rate 1:100 (water : lime sulfur). This result suggested that the spore mixtures of Aschersonia aleyrodis should be applied to field quite long after lime-sulfur spray.
Beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a polyphagous lepidopteran pest mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. BAW are known to migrate long distances to find suitable host plants and environmental condition. The possibility of its overwintering in temperate regions has been suspected. This study was conducted for investigating overwintering and phenology of BAW using by sex pheromone trap in Jeju during 2007 to 2011. BAW was able to overwinter at pupae stage regardless of temperature of winter season in Jeju. The times of BAW caught first on traps were different by surveyed years - early March in 2007, middle March in 2008 and 2011 and early April in 2009 and 2010. The times of BAW caught on trap tended to be more dependent on temperature variation during on November and December than on mean temperature of winter season. The peak season of adults of the overwintering generation was early to middle of May. The results of seasonal periodicity of BAW monitored by sex pheromone trap during 2009 and 2010 indicated that five generations were passed in Jeju. The peak season of 1st generation was on middle of April, 2nd generation on middle of July, 3rd generation on early of August, 4th generation on late of August and 5th generation on middle of September. There were similar patterns by different above sea levels except the season of overwintering generation adults occurrence (March to May).
Arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis, is a serious scale insect pest of citrus in Jeju. The sticky taping of 1.0 cm diameter twig was a good survey method for arrowhead scale crawler. There are three times crawler occurrence season - late May to early July, late July to middle September and late September to late October. But the third occurred crawlers are all died during overwintering in open-field groves. This study was conducted to provide information on efficient sampling plan for arrowhead scale within the tree. Twig and fruit was fit for secondary sample unit by two-stage variance analysis. Both sample number per tree (primary sample unit) was eight twigs or fruits. Taylor’s power law was better described the distribution characteristic of arrowhead scale than Iwao’s patchiness regression. The slope of both linear regressions was greater than “1” which means aggregative distribution pattern. Minimum sample size to estimate the density was calculated using by two parameters of Taylor’s power law. To estimate the mean density on twig and fruit by binomial sampling plan, the optimum tally threshold was 5 and 7, respectively.
EP was obtained through 20% ethanol extraction of Pueraria lobata root, and the fermented form of EP, FEP, was prepared from the EP after incubating with Lactobacillus rhamnosus vitaP1. There was no significant toxicity by EP and FEP up to 1000 ㎍/㎖ in NIH-3T3, HaCaT, and B16F10 cells. In addition to antioxidant potentials of EP and FEP determined by DPPH and ABST assays, we confirmed increase of procollagen type I and elastin synthesis by supplementation of the EP and FEP at the concentration of 50 ㎍/㎖ using ELISA kits. The protein expression levels of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1, -3, and -9, those are involved in the degradation of collagen or other skin matrix proteins, were remarkably suppressed while their inhibitory protein metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1) was greatly up-regulated by supplementation of the EP and FEP at a concentration of 50 ㎍/㎖. Taken together, both EP and FEP supplementation could be involved in the suppression of the skin wrinkle formation through inhibiting degradation of collagen and stimulating the synthesis of collagen and elastin. The results showed that the anti-wrinkle potential of the EP and FEP will be a promising candidate for developing cosmeceutical compounds or products.
Cynanchum wilfordii Radix (CWR), Arctium lappa L (ALL), and Dioscorea opposite (DO) have been known to improve blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and inflammation. To find the optimal combination ratio of CWR, ALL, and DO in terms of vascular health improvement, we compared the effects of various combinations on gene expression of Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). VCAM-1 mediates endothelial leukocyte adhesion and is upregulated in atherosclerosis. Cells was stimulated by TNF-α (10 ng/㎖, 2h) and treated with various combinations for 24 h. A combination (CADM5, CWR:ALL:DO = 2:1:1) showed the strongest suppression of VCAM-1 so that CADM5 was chosen for further experiments. We performed cell viability test with CADM5 (0, 3.125, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 ㎍/㎖) and no cytotoxicity was found. We also investigated the effect of CADM5 on protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, Nrf-2, and HO-1 using western blotting. We found that CADM5 diminished the expression of VCAM-1 and increased the expression of Nrf-2 and HO-1. Therefore, we concluded that CADM5 (CWR:ALL:DO = 2:1:1) effectively improves vascular health by regulating the expression of VCAM-1.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a kind of liver inflammation caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver. Patients with NAFLD have an increased risk to develop liver fibrosis, which leads to cirrhosis. To investigate hepatoprotective effects of Agrimonia eupatoria L (A. eupatoria), oleic acid-induced NAFLD in HepG2 cells was used and A. eupatoria was fractionated with ethanol (EtOH), n-hexane, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH), and H2O. Cells treated with the EtOAc fraction showed the highest lipid accumulation inhibiting effect. A. eupatoria also suppressed triglyceride accumulation and inhibited expression of lipid marker gene, such as a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Moreover, another marker, mRNA expression level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR-α) was significantly increased by in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that A. eupatoria is a potent agent for the treatment of NAFLD.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by the progressive degradation of joint cartilage and is accompanied by secondary inflammation of synovial membranes. The purpose of this study describes a preliminary evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity on test material of Litsea japonica. fruit (LJTM) Also, this study was to evaluate the effects of LJTM on the joint cartilage of rat with OA induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). To study for anti-inflammatory agents effectively, we first examined the inhibitory effect of the LJTM on the production of pro-inflammatory factors and cytokines stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. We identified anti-nociceptive effects of the LJTM by using in vivo peripheral and central nervous pain models. In addition, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on mRNA expression of MMP-2, -3, -7, -9, -13, TIMP-1 and –2 in cartilage of OA. In the LJTM inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators (NO and PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). In cartilage, Expression of MMPs and TIMPs mRNA was suppressed in LJTM treatment group than in the control group. This study suggests that LJTM are potential candidates as anti-inflammation and anti-osteoarthritis agents (painkillers) for the treatment of OA.
본 연구에서는 까마귀쪽나무 잎과 열매 추출물의 항염증 활 성을 비교하고자 마우스 대식세포주인 RAW 264.7 cell에서 LPS에 의해 유도된 COX-2/PGE2와 iNOS/NO 및 염증성 cytokine 인 TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6의 생성 억제 정도를 확인하였다. 그 결 과, 동일한 농도 조건(10 ㎍/㎖)에서 까마귀쪽나무의 열매 추출 물이 잎 추출물에 비해 NO, PGE2, iNOS, 염증성 cytokine인 TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6의 생성량 모두에서 억제 효능이 우수하게 나타났다. 따라서 까마귀쪽나무가 보여주는 항염증 효과적 측 면과 안전성의 두가지 측면을 고려할 때, 까마귀쪽나무의 열매 추출물이 저농도에서 잎 추출물보다 항염증 효과가 우수하거나 동등하며, 그 안전성이 크다고 판단됨으로 까마귀쪽나무의 열 매추출물이 항염증 효능을 가진 기능성 식품 소재로써 개발 가 능성이 있음을 제시한다.
Herb extracts commercially used in Korea were screened for PPAR-γ agonist test and α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Total 16 herb plants had a PPAR-γ agonist activity. Specially, Alisma orientale Juz (108.41%), Ephedra sinica (98.22%), Sasa japonica Makino var. purpurascens Nakai (140.68%), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (106.79%) and Cnidium officinale Makino (113.00%) showed high PPAR-γ agonist activity rate compared with rosiglitazone's (167.46%). And Cornus officinalis S. et Z. (90.3%), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (89.2%), Psoralea corylifolia L. (89.8%), Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe (92.4%) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andr (93.2%), showed high α-glucosidase inhibition rates. These results support previous reports of the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used for diabetes mellitus.
Muscle strength and endurance activities of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer; KG) were compared with those of wild simulated cultivation ginseng (WCG) in mice. Fifty male ICR mice were divided into five groups: A (vehicle); B (WCG 100 mg/kg); C (WCG 500 mg/kg); D (KG 100 mg/kg); E (KG 500 mg/kg). Subsequently, the mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and treadmill test at the 4th and 7th weeks. The glycogen content in the muscle and blood analysis (levels of glucose, triglyceride (TG), IGF-1) were also performed immediately after the last FST and treadmill test at the 7th week. Immobility times in FST were shorter in WCG- than KG-treated groups, and the results of the treadmill tests were also significant except for KG-treated at 100 mg/kg. The glycogen content was increased in both groups with a peak at 500 mg/kg of WCG groups. Serum concentrations of TG and glucose were decreased by administration of KG and WCG and all treated groups showed increase in the level of IGF-1 in serum. These results suggest that KG and WCG supplementations are effective in escalating the muscle strength and endurance.