Muscle strength and endurance activities of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer; KG) were compared with those of wild simulated cultivation ginseng (WCG) in mice. Fifty male ICR mice were divided into five groups: A (vehicle); B (WCG 100 mg/kg); C (WCG 500 mg/kg); D (KG 100 mg/kg); E (KG 500 mg/kg). Subsequently, the mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and treadmill test at the 4th and 7th weeks. The glycogen content in the muscle and blood analysis (levels of glucose, triglyceride (TG), IGF-1) were also performed immediately after the last FST and treadmill test at the 7th week. Immobility times in FST were shorter in WCG- than KG-treated groups, and the results of the treadmill tests were also significant except for KG-treated at 100 mg/kg. The glycogen content was increased in both groups with a peak at 500 mg/kg of WCG groups. Serum concentrations of TG and glucose were decreased by administration of KG and WCG and all treated groups showed increase in the level of IGF-1 in serum. These results suggest that KG and WCG supplementations are effective in escalating the muscle strength and endurance.
The mushroom Coriolusversicolor contains biologically active polysaccharides, most of which belong to the β glucan group. Diverse physicochemical properties, due to different sources and isolated types of β-glucans, may induce distinct biological activities. Here, we examined the effects of β-glucan from Coriolusversicolor (CVG) on the scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) expression and the role of SR-B1 in CVG-induced phagocytosis regulation by using SR-B1-specific shRNA transfected cells. We also examined whether Dectin-1 and CK2 are involved in SR-B1 expression in CVG-treated cells. Our study results showed that CVG increased the SR-B1 expression via Dectin-1 and CK2 in macrophages. However, the inhibition of SR-B1 expression by shRNA did not completely eliminate the effect of CVG on the increase of phagocytosis suggesting that SR-B1 is not essential for CVG-stimulated phagocytosis. This study will contribute to identify CVG's mechanism of action and its use in the development of functional foods.
Herb extracts commercially used in Korea were screened for PPAR-γ agonist test and α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Total 16 herb plants had a PPAR-γ agonist activity. Specially, Alisma orientale Juz (108.41%), Ephedra sinica (98.22%), Sasa japonica Makino var. purpurascens Nakai (140.68%), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (106.79%) and Cnidium officinale Makino (113.00%) showed high PPAR-γ agonist activity rate compared with rosiglitazone's (167.46%). And Cornus officinalis S. et Z. (90.3%), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (89.2%), Psoralea corylifolia L. (89.8%), Paeonia japonica (Makino) Miyabe (92.4%) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andr (93.2%), showed high α-glucosidase inhibition rates. These results support previous reports of the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used for diabetes mellitus.
Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, indigestion, circulatory problems and pain. The associated anti-inflammatory effect of this agent is achieved via the inhibition of Nf-kB signaling, a property that has been demonstrated to effectively control the symptoms of various skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Sea Buckthorn in reducing the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting the Nf-kB pathway, as measured by the symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) occurring secondarily to inflammation and immune dysregulation. Our data demonstrate that Sea Buckthorn significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of NO (p〈0.001). Atopic dermatitis was induced by repeated application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the dorsal skin of mice. Topical application of 5% Sea Buckthorn extract improved the symptoms of AD, specifically reducing disease severity scores, scratching behaviors and epidermal thickness. When compared to the control group, animals treated with Sea Buckthorn exhibited increased serum IL-12 levels and decreased serum TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 levels. Such a modulation of biphasic T-helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokines may result in a reduction in serum IgE levels. Our findings suggest that mechanism of action of Sea Buckthorn in the treatment of AD is associated with a marked anti-inflammatory effect as well as an inhibition of Th2-mediated IgE overproduction via the modulation of biphasic Th1/Th2 cytokines. Such results suggest that topical Sea Buckthorn extract may prove to be a novel therapy for AD symptoms with few side effects.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Woohwangcheungsimweun (ox bezoar), deer antlers, and wild ginseng on induction of cardiomyocyte differentiation using the established mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was highest in Woohwangcheungsimweun treatment group. The expression of rabbit anti-GATA-4(GATA-4) and troponin (TnI) were highest in wild ginseng and Woohwangcheungsimweun treatment groups, respectively. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis showed that the expression of ANP was highest in Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and Woohwangcheungsimweun treatment groups. The expression of GATA-4 was relatively high in wild ginseng treatment group. The expression of TnI was highest in Woohwangcheungsimweun treatment group. In the gene expression analysis, DMSO greatly inhibited GATA-4 expression to 25% of control. Woohwangcheungsimweun treatment caused to increase cTnI and cardiac ANP expression significantly. Wild ginseng extract upregulated GATA-4 gene expression. In conclusion, DMSO widely used as cardiomyocyte differentiation inducer did not show significant effects on the expression of ANP, GATA-4 and TnI in this study. Woohwangcheungsimweun showed upregulation of ANP and TnI expression. Wild ginseng extract showed greater effects than DMSO on GATA-4 expression. These results might suggest that the combination of Woohwangcheungsimweun and wild ginseng extract treatment can be expected to increase expressions of all three genes.
Influences of different seeding dates on growth, seed yield, fatty acid composition and oil content were investigated in flax plants for two years. The results indicated that plant height in early seeding date was higher than that of delayed seeding dates during first season. Furthermore, seeding date also significantly affected the ripened seed rate and the rate increased with the delay in seeding date in first season. Seed yield in the first crop season was significantly higher than the second crop season. Palmitic acid showed variation in different seeding dates. Contrarily, stearic acid was stable and did not changed by different seeding dates. Linolenic acid was found in highest amount in all seeding dates consecutively in two cropping years. Highest oil content was recovered from the seeds of flax sown at 29 Apr. and May 9 in first and second cropping year respectively.
This study was carried out in order to catalogue the folk plants of 7 counties and cities of northern region of Chungcheongbuk-do from March to October, 2011. Based on the 626 survey sheets collected from 67 residents at 17 places of 7 counties and were subsequently analysed. The identified folk plants in the northern region of Chungcheongbuk-do consisted of a total 348 taxa; 98 families, 250 genera, 298 species, 5 subspecies, 38 varieties, and 7 forms. The use by its usage were: 223 taxa; edible, 123 taxa; medicinal, 4 taxa; dye, 2 taxa; aroma, 6 taxa; spice, 32 taxa; ornamental, 11 taxa; oil, 4 taxa; starch, 22 taxa; and others, respectively, so the edible use is the highest. The most useful part was the leaf, followed by fruit and root. The consistency comparison between the scientific and the local name were the highest in the 50's and the lowest in 80's.
This study was conducted to investigate the environmental characteristics of natural habitats, and the genetic variations in samples from 19 different quadrates of Asplenium scolopendrium 10 habitats. The natural habitats of A. scolopendrium were located at an altitudes 110-973 m with inclinations of 7-30˚. All the quadrates were located on north facing slopes. The average field capacity of the soil is 31.4%, with organic matter at 16.7%, and the pH is 5.84. The soil texture was confirmed as sandy loam in 8 habitats and silt loam in 2 habitats. A total of 214 vascular plants were identified from 10 habitats. The importance value of the herbaceous layer (H) was the highest in A. scolopendrium, at 10.4%, followed by Arachniodes standishii (7.3%), Dryopteris crassirhizoma (6.5%), and Polystichum tripteron (5.3%), which implies that the natural habitats of A. scolopendrium are affinity with ferns. The species diversity of A. scolopendrium was estimated as on average 1.09, while the dominance and evenness were 0.12 and 0.87, respectively. The result of the RAPD analysis, among 59 bands amplified with a primer, 25 (42.4%) showed polymorphism. Twenty-one individuals of 10 habitats could be classified into four groups with similarity coefficient values ranging from 0.74 to 1.0. Mt. Mullae and Geumdaebong populations shows basal branching within the 21 individuals. Ulleung-do island and Jeju-do island population forms an independent clade, respectively. Mt. Moak and Byeonsan-bando clade formed a sister to the Ulleung-do island and Jeju-do island clade.
Dandelion has been widely utilized for medicinal and edible purposes. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental LED (light-emitting diode) light on germination, growth characteristics and anthocyanin content of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) seedling using LED blue (460 nm), red (660 nm, R), blue + red (B:R=6:4) and fluorescent lamp light treatment. By LED illumination to T. officinale seed germination speed was delayed, and germination rate was the highest in the fluorescent light. The growth characteristics (plant height, number of leaves, root length and fresh weight) were greatly influenced by supplemental LED light compared with control treatment, and the growth promotion was the most effective in the red LED illumination. After 60 days of red and mixed LED light treatments, anthocyanin content of dandelion plants was significantly changed. The anthocyanin content was increased by 12~19 mg/100 g under the red LED and the mixed light conditions compared with the control and the blue LED. Results indicate that illumination with red and mix LEDs, compared with other light treatments, is beneficial for promotion of growth and anthocyanin content in dandelion.
The plant Empetrum nigrum, valued in the traditional system of medicine, is well known for its antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties. In the present work, the effect of removal of shoot apical meristem (SAM) on shoot proliferation was studied. It was observed that removal of SAM promoted shoot proliferation whereas intact tip resulted in higher survival percentage. Further, the effect of different concentrations of BA on above was also studied. During root formation the effect of light quality after treatment with IBA was investigated. For rooting, continuous red light without IBA resulted in maximum rooting percentage. The above factors when taken into consideration during micropropagation of this endangered plant can result in healthier plantlets. The results show that the species could be successfully conserved by in vitro propagation system.
Compared to wide ranges of genetic variation of natural populations, very limited Miscanthus cultivar has been released. This study was the first report on the development of Miscanthus cultivar by means of radiation breeding. Seeds of M. sinensis were initially exposed to gamma rays of 250 Gy for 24 h, generated from a 60Co gamma-irradiator. The irradiated seeds were sown and then the highly tiller-producing mutants were selected for this study. Biomass-related parameters including tiller number, plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number were measured. Ploidy level and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were investigated to characterize the mutants compared to wild type (WT) Miscanthus. Plant height and tiller number were negatively related, where multi-tillering mutants were relatively short after 4 month growth. However stem diameter and leaf number were greater in mutants. All the materials used in this study were diploid, implying that the mutants with greater tiller numbers and stem diameter were not likely related to polyploidization. Based on the sequence of ITS regions, the mutants demonstrated base changes from the gamma irradiation where G+C content (%) was decreased in the ITS1, but increased in ITS2 when compared to WT sequence. ITS2 region was more variable than in ITS1 in the mutants, which collectively allows identification of the mutants from WT. Those mutants having enhanced tillers and allelic variations might be used as breeding materials for enhanced biomass-producing Miscanthus cultivars.
We performed phylogenetic analyses of a total of 21 acessions covering 5 species in the Korean Trigonotis and one outgroup species using nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast rbcL, matK, ndhF sequences. Outgroup were chosen from the closely related genus Lithospermum zollingeri. Both parsimony and Bayesian Inference methods were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the group. The evidence collected indicated that phylogenetic relationships among Korean Trigonotis species are unresolved based on nuclear marker (ITS), as the same as based on separated chloroplast sequences. While the phylogenetic relationships of Korean Trigonotis species almost clearly were resolved in combined chloroplast sequences. Thus, the members of Trigonotis coreana can be distinguished to the members of Trigonotis peduncularis in combined cpDNA sequences and Trigonotis nakaii was treated as a synonymed to Trigonotis radicans var. sericea. In addition, the MP and BI analysis showed Trigonotis icumae as sister of the remained Korean Trigonotis species based on combined molecular markers (BI: PP = 1).
The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity using SSR marker and investigate the fatty acid composition of perilla (P. frutescens var. frutescens) germplasm. Genetic diversity among 95 accessions, which consisted of 29 weedy types and 66 landrace accessions, was evaluated based on 12 SSR markers carrying 91 alleles. The mean values of observed (HO) and expected heterozygosities (HE) were 0.574 and 0.640, respectively, indicating a considerable amount of polymorphism within this collection. A genetic distance-based phylogeny grouped into two distinct groups, which were the landrace, moderate and weedy type, genetic distance (GD) value was 0.609. The physicochemical traits about crude oil contents and fatty acid compositions were analyzed using GC. Among tested germplasm, the total average oil contents (%) showed a range from 28.57 to 49.67 %. Five fatty acids and their contents in the crude oils are as follows: α-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28%), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). The average oil content of wild types was lower than landrace, and the oil content of middle genotype accessions was higher than other germplasm, but no significant variation between landrace and wild types was shown. Nevertheless, IT117174, landrace of Korea, was highest in crude oil content (47.11%) and linolenic acid composition (64.58%) among the used germplasm. These traits of the selected accessions will be helped for new functional plant breeding in perilla crop.