한국응용곤충학회 학술대회논문집

이 간행물 논문 검색


2012 한국응용곤충학회 정기총회 및 춘계학술발표회 (2012년 5월) 195

2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Three rice planthoppers, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), the white back planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), and the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps) are major homopteran sap-sucking rice pests in Korea. These insect pests commonly have highly modified mouthparts, the stylet bundle, for piercing and sucking. Two pairs of mandibular and maxillary stylets consist of the stylet bundle by interlocking each stylet, which forms the two canals, larger one for food canal and smaller one for salivary canal. Destructive damages result from direct feeding effects (hopperburing) with heavy infestation and/or transmitting virus diseases (Rice stripe virus and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus by L. striatellus and Rice dwarf virus by N. cincticeps). Damage level is closely related to the feeding behavior of sap-sucking insects, so generally honeydew excretion amount on the resistant rice variety is smaller than that on the susceptible. Therefore, the method to measure the honeydew excretion amount has been primarily used as an indirect way to compare the feeding amount between the susceptible and the resistant. On the other hand, the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique was firstly developed by McLean and Kinsey (1964) to measure voltage changes during piercing and sucking of insect on the plant. Since specific voltage waveforms were identified and it was known that each waveform is commonly related to salivary and feeding behavior of insect stylets in the plant tissue, EPG technique has been used to real-timely and quantitatively measure feeding behavior of piercing and sucking insects on susceptible and resistant rice variety. However, identifying each different waveform distinctly and understanding biological function of each waveform are certainly necessary to analyze feeding behavior in the plant tissue such as phloem sap ingestion. In this study, the stylet penetration behavior of N. lugens, S. furcifera, L. striatellus, and N. cincticeps on rice plants (Oryza sativa) was evaluated through the use of a direct current based electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG). To accomplish this, we classified the EPG waveforms of planthopper group into seven different patterns, np, N1, N2, N3, N4-a, N4-b, and N5, according to their shapes, voltage amplitudes, voltage levels, and frequencies. The N4-b pattern was always preceded by N3 and N4-a, in that order. Continuous honeydew excretion only occurred during the N4-b period, and the honeydew deposited on a filter paper containing ninhydrin reagent during the N4-b period were stained into violet. Based on the location of the stylets in the cross-section of rice tissue and honeydew excretion, the EPG waveforms for the stylet penetration behaviors of the three rice planthoppers were assigned to the following groups; np: non-penetration of stylets, N1: penetration initiation, N2: salivation and stylet movement, N3: an extracellular activity near the phloem region, N4-a: an intracellular activity in phloem region, N4-b: phloem sap ingestion, and N5: activity in the xylem region. Futhermore, we classified the EPG waveforms of the green rice leafhopper, N. cincticeps into seven different patterns, Nc1, Nc2, Nc3, Nc4, Nc5, Nc6, and Nc7 according to their shapes, voltage amplitudes, voltage levels, and frequencies. The Nc6 pattern was always preceded by Nc5 pattern. The Nc6 pattern of the leafhopper was carefully considered as a phloem sap feeding behavior based on regular honeydew excretion. On the other hand, the planthopper group and the leafhopper hardly showed the phloem sap feeding pattern on resistant rice varieties during an EPG-recording. In addition, the duration of the phloem sap feeding patterns was highly decreased on resistant rice varieties relative to susceptible ones. From these results, it is suggested that the phloem sap feeding related patterns are an important parameter to determine resistance of rice plant.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
I conducted experiments in Drosophila to investigate the consequences of altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous system. In ace hypomorphic mutant larvae, the amount of ace mRNA and the activity of AChE both in vivo and in vitro were significantly reduced compared with those of controls. Reduced Ace in Drosophila larvae resulted in significant down-regulation of branch length and the number of boutons in Type 1 glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). These defects in ace hypomorphic mutant larvae were suppressed when Musca domestica AChE was transgenically expressed. Because AChE inhibitors are utilized for medications for Alzheimer’s disease, we investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of AChE activity induced any synaptic defects. I found that controls exposed to a sublethal dose of DDVP phenocopied the synaptic structural defects of the ace hypomorphic mutant. These results suggest that down-regulation of AChE activity, regardless of whether it is due to genetic or pharmacological manipulations, results in altered synaptic architecture. This study suggests that exposure to AChE inhibitors for 6-12 months may induce altered synaptic architectures in human brains with Alzheimer’s diseases, similar to those reported here. These changes may underlie or contribute to the loss of efficacy of AChE inhibitors after prolonged treatment.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
감귤원에서 7종의 자나방이 조사되었고, 이 중 네눈쑥가지나방(Ascotis selenaria)의 발생량이 많았다. 감귤 과실 피해는 주로 네눈쑥가지나방 유충에 의 해 발생하는데, 노지 온주밀감은 1~3령의 저령기 유충이 주로 가해하여 무정형의 피해흔을 남기는 반면, 하우스 부지화는 6령 유충에 의해 크게 피해를 입는다. 이러 한 피해증상의 차이는 감귤의 부지화(Shiranuhi: [C. unshiu × C. sinensis] × C. reticulata)와 온주밀감(Citus unshiu)의 착과 특성에 따른 차이로 보인다. 감귤원에 서 자나방류 감귤 과실 피해율은 2008년부터 2010년까지 평균 4.5%였다. 감귤원 에서 네눈쑥가지나방 유충의 공간분포는 무작위분포에 가까운 수치의 군집지수를 보였다. 온주밀감의 신초와 과실의 피해양상을 보면, 5월 중순에 신초피해가 처음 발생 하였고, 6월 상중순에 최성기를 보였다. 이후 봄순이 경화되는 시기인 6월 하순부 터 급격히 감소하여 여름순(7~8월)과 가을순(9~10월)에는 피해가 적었다. 과실 은 봄순이 경화되는 시점(6월 하순 또는 7월 초)부터 증가하여 7월 말경 급증하였 다. 실제 유충 발생시기는 잎과 과실 피해와 비슷하게 발생하는데, 유충은 5월 중순 에 처음 발생하여 6월 중순에 발생최성기를 보였다. 이후 불규칙한 양상을 보이는 데 7월 하순과 9월 상중순에 약한 발생피크를 보였다. 성충 발생은 5월 중순에 발생 최성기를 보였고, 7~9월은년도에 따라 복잡한 발생양상을 보이나, 대개 7월 상순 부터 하순, 8월 하순~9월 상순에 발생 피크를 보였다. 효과적인 네눈쑥가지나방의 방제시기를 예측하기 위하여 실내에서 온도별 네 눈쑥가지나방의 발육기간과 산란을 조사하여 네눈쑥가지나방의 개체군 모형을 구 축하였다. 네눈쑥가지나방의 발육영점온도와 유효적산온도는 각각 알이 10.98℃ 와 83.7 DD, 유충이 9.68℃와 340.7 DD, 용이 9.07℃와 200.7 DD였다. 비선형 모 형으로 알, 유충, 용의 발육속도(1/median day)에 Hilbert와 Logan 모형을, 생리적 연령에 따른 발육완료 분포 값에 Weibull 함수를 적용하여 매개변수를 추정하였 특I-03 다. 산란모형은 총산란수 모형, 생리적 연령에 따른 누적산란율 모형, 생리적 연령 에 따른 생존율 모형으로 구성하였다. 네눈쑥가지나방의 개체군 모형은 알, 유충, 용, 산란 모형을 구성 요소로 하여 각 단계가 완료 될 때마다 전이 되도록 구성하였 다. 월동용을 2 : 3 : 3 : 2 비율로 나눈 그룹을 만들고, 각각의 그룹에 생리적 연령을 -0.3, 0. 0.3, 0.6을 할당하였다. 이 시나리오 조건으로 모의 실행하였을 때 실제 포장에서 1령 유충과 성충의 발생양상과 발생 최성기가 유사하게 모의되었다.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT) catalyze the conjugation of a range of diverse small lipophilic compounds with sugars to produce glycosides, playing an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics in insects. Recent progress in genome sequencing has enabled an assessment of the extent of the UGT multigene family in insects. Here we report over 310 putative UGT genes identified from genomic databases of eight different insect species together with a transcript database from the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera. Phylogenetic analysis of the insect UGTs showed Order-specific gene diversification and inter-species conservation of this multigene family. Only one family (UGT50) is found in all insect species surveyed (except the pea aphid) and may be homologous to mammalian UGT8. Three families (UGT31, UGT32, and UGT305) related to Lepidopteran UGTs are unique to baculoviruses. A lepidopteran sub-tree constructed with 40 H. armigera UGTs and 44 Bombyx mori UGTs revealed that lineage-specific expansions of some families in both species appear to be driven by diversification in the N-terminal substrate binding domain, increasing the range of compounds that could be detoxified or regulated by glycosylation. By comparison of the deduced protein sequences, several important domains were predicted, including the N-terminal signal peptide, UGT signature motif, and C-terminal transmembrane domain. Furthermore, several conserved residues putatively involved in sugar donor binding and catalytic mechanism were also identified by comparison with human UGTs. Many UGTs were expressed in fat body, midgut, and Malpighian tubules, consistent with functions in detoxification, and some were expressed in antennae, suggesting a role in pheromone deactivation. Transcript variants derived from alternative splicing, exon skipping, or intron retention produced additional UGT diversity. These findings from this comparative study of two lepidopteran UGTs as well as other insects reveal a diversity comparable to this gene family in vertebrates, plants and fungi and show the magnitude of the task ahead, to determine biochemical function and physiological relevance of each UGT enzyme.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
The introduction of new pathogens and disease vectors has been recognized as a major threat to Galapagos Island biodiversity. Here I focus on mosquito species of the Galapagos archipelago, using population genetic and phylogenetic data to understand their historical and current population dynamics. I show that two mosquito species found in the archipelago have very different historical and contemporary evolutionary histories: one species, Aedes taeniorhynchus, naturally colonized the archipelago 200,000yrs ago and is now found widely in the islands, having adapted and spread to a range of different habitats. It has also changed its feeding-behaviour and now frequently feeds on reptiles in addition to mammals, unlike the continental progenitor populat ions. These properties potentially make Aedes taeniorhynchus a key bridge-vector in the archipelago for any new invading mosquito borne diseases. In contrast, I show that Culex quinquefasciatus, a major vector of diseases such as West Nile virus and avian malaria, has been introduced on multiple occasions since 1985 via human transportation networks and that its distribution and movement in the archipelago depend greatly on human activities. These two species might play an important role in the introduction and spread of new diseases in the Galapagos archipelago.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are well known as micro-insect pests, which are very specific to their host plants, sucking phloem for acquiring nutrients, and most of them have successfully maintained parthenogenetic generations cyclically or permanently. In the world, the approximately 5,000 described aphid species belong to the family Aphididae, which has taxonomically been subdivided into 27 subfamilies in current. The diversification of host plants, especially angiosperms, has played an important role in their evolution. Major questions about aphid evolution include origins of host alternation as well as age and patterns of diversification in relation to host plants. To address these, I did both macroscale (phylogenetics) and microscale (population genetics) researches on aphids. First I reconstructed the phylogeny of the three major aphid groups, Aphidini, Macrosiphini, and Pterocommatinae, which are the most diverse in the world and constitute more than 60% of the total species. These major lineages demonstrate the evolutionary history of aphids interacting with their host plants. I also used molecular dating method to calculate reasonable divergence time on each clade. Based on phylogenetic and dating analyses, most generic divergences in Aphidinae occurred in the Middle Tertiary when primary hosts, mainly Rosaceae, were diverging, whereas species-level divergences were related with diversification of secondary hosts such as Poaceae in the Middle to Late Tertiary. Most generic divergences in Aphidini occurred in the Middle Tertiary, and species-level divergences occurred between the Middle and Late Tertiary. The divergence times of aphid lineages at the generic or subgeneric levels are close to those of their primary hosts. Second I performed population genetics of the polyphagous cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. I analyzed population genetic structure between 570 aphids collected from 41 plant species of primary and secondary, mostly wild, hosts using 9 microsatellite loci. As results, population structure of A. gossypii revealed that several genetic affinities in common use of some secondary and primary hosts are detected. Host preference in secondary host is higher than that in primary host, and woody plants share same genetic structure. This species might speciated by the related mechanisms such as host alternation and loss of primary host. I will propose macro- and micro-evolutionary patterns of the Aphidini aphids based on integrating phylogenetic and population genetic approaches
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Entomopathogenic fungi have high potential in controlling harmful pests in agriculture and forest, but their slow progress in insect killing and low thermotolerance are major impediments to successful industrialization. Two possible efforts were done to overcome these problems. First the use of supernatant of a Beauveria bassiana isolate reduced the population of cotton aphid with a dosage-dependant manner, which allowed a quality control factor to be determined for the evaluation of the supernatant as the first step of a development. Chitinase was one of the major pathogenesis-related enzymes in the supernatant. A mineral material-mediated chitinase precipitation method was established to enhance the thermotolerance of chitinase. The use of supernatant can be a quicker way to control aphids. Secondly, to increase thermotolerance the effects of nutritional manipulation of culture media and oil-coating of conidia of B. bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were investigated, followed by pairing of similar isolates. Recently, thermo-susceptible B.bassiana mutants were generated by a fungal transformation platform to discover thermotolerance-related genes, which are now underdetermination. Genetic information on fungal thermotolerance is going to be clear in near the future.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Sex pheromone production is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) in many lepidopteran species. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of Plutella xylostella encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. The PBAN receptor (Plx-PBANr) gene was also cloned from the female pheromone gland and has conserved structural motifs implicating in promoting G protein coupling and tyrosine-based sorting signaling along with seven transmembrane domains. The expression of Plx-PBANr was found only in the pheromone gland of female adults among examined tissues and developmental stages. Heterologous expression in human uterus cervical cancer cells revealed that Plx-PBANr induced significant calcium elevation when challenged with Plx-PBAN. Female P. xylostella injected with double-stranded RNA specific to Plx-PBANr showed suppression of the receptor gene expression and exhibited significant reduction in pheromone biosynthesis, which resulted in loss of male attractiveness. In addition, to assess molecular events occurring downstream of PBAN signaling, partial sequences of Δ9 and Δ11 fatty acid desaturases of P. xylostella. were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two desaturase genes were highly clustered with other desaturases associated with sex pheromone biosynthesis in other insects. RT-PCR analysis showed that Δ9 desaturase was dominantly expressed in adult females, whereas Δ11 desaturase was expressed in all developmental stages. When PBANr expression was suppressed by PBANr-RNAi, the treated females also showed significant suppression of expression of both desaturases. These results suggest that expressions of the two desaturases are controlled by PBAN and that the two desaturases may be involved as downstream components in sex pheromone biosynthesis of P. xylostella.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
생물다양성협약(CBD)는 나고야의정서를 통해 생물자원의 이용에 따른 이익분 배를 요구하게 되었고, 자국 생물다양성의 보호 수단의 하나로 검역을 더욱 강화하 게 되었다. Biosecurity (생물안전)은 생물의 이용의 안전성(Biosafety)을 포괄하는 지역생물 다양성의 보호와 이용을 관장하는 용어로써, 감염성 질병, 검역해충, 외 래침입생물, 유전자조작생물 등으로 인한 위험을 방지하는 전반적 노력이라 볼 수 있다. 이 중 우리나라 응용곤충학회 내에서 생물안전분과의 필요성은 식물검역과 외래침입생물의 국내 생태환경 위해성 방지 노력으로 집중될 것이다. 이러한 관심 은 식물검역 관련 다수의 심포지움, 발표회 등을 통해서 의견이 수렴되었고, 2011 년 가을 학회에서 분과제안이 이루어졌다. 이후 2012년 3월 생물안전이란 주제에 관심을 있는 회원을 중심으로 학회 내 소모임 의견이 제기되어, 2012년 봄 춘계학 술대회에 소모임을 구성하기에 이르렀다. 첫 모임에서는 분과의 지속가능 방안, 학 회 내 역할 및 분과 발전을 위한 계획, 검역검사본부와 분과의 관계 설정, 정보의 교 류 방안을 논의하고자 한다.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
세계화와 경제성장으로 인한 국제교역 확대는 침입외래종(Invasive Alien specie; IAS)의 의도적 또는 비의도적 침입을 증대시키고 있다. 게다가 기후변화는 침입된 외래 병해충의 부정적인 영향을 더 증가시킬 것으로 예상되고 있다. 따라서 이러한 식물위생분야의 위험을 전략적․종합적으로 분석하고 관리할 수 있기 위해 서는 현행 시스템의 획기적인 개선이 요구된다. 특히 이전의 소극적․방어적인 '식물 검역(Quarantine)'에서 적극적․선제적인 '생물안보(Biosecurity)'로의 발상전환과 함께 현행 식물위생관리시스템에 대한 경제성 분석을 통한 선택과 집중, 제한된 자 원의 효율적인 배분을 통한 안전성 극대화, 외래병해충의 원산지에서부터의 사전 방어 및 조기대응 시스템 구축이 시급하다. 더 나아가서는 '생물안보 거버넌스 (Biosecurity Governance)' 구축을 통해 민․관․학이 상호 긴밀하고 유기적으로 연결 될 수 있는 방안이 마련되어야 한다.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
새로운 환경으로 외래생물이 침입할 경우, 침입 생태계에서 큰 피해를 입히게 되 는 경우는 대개 “10% 규칙 (ten rule)”을 따른다. 침입 생물 중 10%가 정착하게 되 고, 정착하더라도 10%가 유해생물로써 생태계에 피해를 입힌다. 그러나 인위적인 도입의 경우, 국내 환경에 정착하게 될 가능성은 더 높아진다. 최근 생물적 방제를 비롯한 다양한 곤충 산업에서 외래 곤충류 도입에 대한 수요가 증가하고 있다. 비단 외래생물 뿐 아니라 토착곤충의 경우 역시 인위적인 생산의 증가는 생태환경에 새 로운 위해요소가 될 수 있다. 유용곤충에 대한 생태환경 위해성 평가는 식물검역적 차원에서 일부 이루어지고 있으나, 전방위적인 생물안보 차원에서는 이루어지지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 이에 식물검역에서 이루어지고 있는 천적의 위험평가 기법 을 소개하고, 산업용 곤충 및 LMO 곤충 등에 대한 생태위해성의 사례를 통해 곤충 생태환경 위해성 평가의 논의점을 제시한다.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
국제화와 농산물의 빈번한 수출입으로 인해 국내에 보고되지 않았던 외래해충 의 침입이 점차 늘어 최근까지 기록된 외래해충은 블루베리혹파리 등 총 42종에 달 한다. 우발적으로 유입된 검역 해충들의 국내 정착 가능성 여부 및 확산의 예측은 이들 해충들의 박멸 및 발생 지역 확산 방지를 위하여 필수적인 과정이다. 따라서 본 연구는 오이총채벌레(Thrips palmi)등 2종의 기 침입 해충과 침입 가능성이 있 는 나방 1종(Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana) 등 2종의 정착 가능성 분석을 위해 상용 프로그램인 CLIMEX® (version 3.0) (Sutherst et al., 2007)와 문 헌에 수록된 매개변수 값을 이용하였다. 정착 가능성 분석은 68개 시군을 대상으로 평년(30년) 기상자료와 기후변화 모델 1종을 사용하였다. 분석 결과 EI (Ecoclimatic index)값이 10 이상으로 보통의 정착가능성 있는 지역의 수가 오이총 채벌레는 제주도 서귀포 등 3개 지역, 미국선녀벌레 (Metcalfa pruinosa)는 대구 등 47개 지역, Light brown apple moth(LBAM)는 제주도 고산 등 2개 지역이었으나 지중해과실파리(Ceratitis capitata)는 한 지역도 없었다. 그러나 사계절 최저, 최고 온도가 3℃ 상승하고 강우량이 겨울에는 20% 감소하고 여름에는 20% 증가하는 기후 변화에 따른 결과는 오이총채벌레, LBAM, 지중해과실파리 3종 모두 국내 남 부 해안 지역까지 정착 가능성이 있는 것으로 분석되었다.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
최근 농림수산검역검사본부 지원으로 꽃매미의 원산지 추적을 위한 집단유전 학적 분석 조사를 수행한 바 있다. 꽃매미의 집단유전학적 분석을 우선 15개의 마 이크로새틀라이트 마커를 순수 분리하여 개발하였다. 마커 평가 후 집단 분석에 유 용한 12개의 마이크로새틀라이트를 이용하여, 한국, 중국, 일본 등 총 37개 집단의 762개체를 분석하여 꽃매미 원산지를 과학적으로 추정하였다. 그 결과, 2006년에 천안에 최초 침입한 꽃매미 개체는 현재 수도권과 중부권에서 채집되는 개체군과 는 다른 집단임이 밝혀졌고, 2008년 이후로 퍼져나간 국내 집단은 상하이 집단과 유전적으로 일치하였다. 그리고 2011년 창원과 삼척에 발생하여 채집된 개체군은 각각 베이징, 텐진 지역과 산동 지역이 근원인 개체군으로 판명되었다. 이들 꽃매 미의 확산의 주된 원인은 상하이로부터 유입(난괴 전파 등)된 것이나, 간헐적으로 텐진과 옌타이 등으로부터 창원과 삼척에 꽃매미가 독립적으로 유입된 것이 규명 되어, 꽃매미가 국내로 다중 침입(multiple introductions)에 의해 침투한 것을 최종 확인하였다
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
교역의 발달로 국가 간 병해충 유입 또는 이동을 차단하고 methyl bromide를 대 체 할 소독기법으로 radiation을 이용한 검역관리가 최근 들어 이루어지고 있다. 미 주지역에서는 2000년 8월부터 매년 4,000톤가량의 농산물 수출입 검역시 X-선을 조사하고 있으며 태국은 2006년부터 방사선 조사 과일류를 미국에 수출하고 있다. 인도는 2007년부터 방사선 조사 망고를 대미 수출하고 있으며 멕시코는 2011년 7 월부터 식물검역을 위한 새로운 감마선 조사시설을 운영하고 있고 말레이시아도 2012년 람부탄의 대미 수출을 위한 방사선 조사 검역 기술을 추진 중에 있다. 국내 에서는 수출 과실류(사과, 배, 단감 등)에서의 방사선 처리(조사)를 적용시험 중에 있고 전자빔(electron beam)을 이용한 해충 사멸 연구가 진행 중이다. 전자빔은 전 기에너지로만 발생되기 때문에 방사능 잔존에 대한 염려가 없어 안전하고, 처리시 간이 짧으며, 조사선량의 조절이 용이하기 때문에 신속한 표면처리가 가능하다. 담 배가루이, 점박이응애, 복숭아혹진딧물, 아메리카잎굴파리, 그리고 담배거세미나 방 등에서 전자빔은 부화억제, 우화억제, 산란수 감소, 성충이 산란한 알의 부화억 제 등 비정상적인 발육을 유발했으나 성충의 수명에는 영향이 없었다. 또한 전자빔 조사선량이 높아질수록 세포내 DNA 손상정도가 커졌다. 이와 같이 전자빔은 곤충 의 직접적인 치사효과보다는 불임을 유발함으로써 검역대상 해충방제에 활용될 것으로 전망된다.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
세계화 및 기후변화 등으로 외래병해충의 유입가능성은 크게 증가되고 있어 미 국, 호주 등 선진국의 경우 검역병해충에 대한 첨단의 진단기술개발 이외에 외래침 입병해충으로 인한 경제적 영향분석, 긴급대응체계 구축, 사후관리 등 식물검역 R&D의 중요성을 인식하여 투자를 대폭 증대하고 있다. 우리도 이러한 국제적인 추세에 맞춰 2011년 6월 농림수산식품부 산하 검역관 련 3개 기관이 통합하여 농림수산검역검사본부로 출범하였고, 식물검역 R&D를 활성화하기 위해 식물검역기술개발센터가 신설되었다. 이 센터가 조기에 목적을 달성할 수 있도록 2013년부터 식물검역 R&D분야의 투자영역을 사전예방체계 확 립, 첨단융복합 진단체계 구축, 친환경 소독기법 개발, 확산방지 및 사후관리기술 개발, 식물검역 선진화기반 강화로 설정하고, 내실있고 균형있는 투자를 통해 식물 검역 R&D의 기반을 구축해 나가고자 한다.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Many polyphagous herbivore insects considered as a single species are indeed comprised of genetically differentiated host related races that utilize several unrelated plant families. Aphis gossypii Glover, one of the extremely polyphagous aphid species, has more than 100 host plants distributed worldwide. In Korea, it takes holocyclic life cycle, with a number of primary hosts, which is unusual for other aphid species. However, former population genetic studies on A. gossypii have dealt with the populations from only a few agricultural host plants. In this study, we hypothesized that different primary host utilization may be restricted for certain host races and this may play a key role of the genetic differentiation in this species. We collected the cotten aphid populations from 36 different host plants, 5 primary and 31 secondary hosts including various wild and non-cultivated plants. To determine population genetic structure, we analyzed genetic differentiation among those populations using 9 microsatellite loci. As results, four genetically distinct clusters were verified. Of the five primary host populations, there were significant gaps in genetic differences between Rhamnus-associated group and Hibiscus-associated group, and the other populations were affinitive with the Hibiscus-associated group. Overall, primary host populations have a higher level of genetic diversity than secondary host populations. Several populations associated with secondary hosts such as spiderwort, madder, and Korean lettuce were considerably differentiated in the result of principle component analysis, which nearly showed the species level difference similar to Aphis glycines Matsumura and Aphis sp. ex Rhamnus. Thus, there could be reproductively isolated by the loss of primary hosts, and might be already speciated from A. gossypii
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Mine and gall makers among Lepidoptera are found in the family Gracillariidae. The genus Borboryctis Kumata et Kuroko, 1988, have 2 species B. euryae Kumata et Kuroko and B. triplaca (Mayrick). B. euryae is known a gall maker of Eurya spp. In this study, Borboryctis euryae Kumata et Kuroko, 1988 feeding on Eurya japonica Thunb. and E. emarginata Makino (Theaceae), is reported for the first time from Is. Jeju and Geoje, Korea. The host plant, Eurya spp. an evergreen tree, is widely distributed in East Asia including Korea. The early instar larva makes linear mine near the surface of the leaves and mature larva makes gall on the leaves of the host plant. Larval frass ejected behaviour were not observed. The mature larva makes a light brown spindle-shape cocoon on the somewhere of the host plant, mainly edge of the leaf. The descriptions and figures of the male and female genitalia, mine, gall, larvae and pupae in immature stages, are provided.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Members of Bethylidae are widely distributed from the Tropic to the Subarctic regions around the world. The family contains about 2,216 species worldwide, and the majority of recorded species are found from the tropical regions. From the Oriental region, 368 species of 46 genera in four subfamilies has been recorded up to date. Two species are recognized as new to science and three to the fauna of Cambodia and its adjacent countries in the present study. We provide microphotographs and diagnoses of each species with a general introduction of Cambodian bethylids.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
Macrosiphini is the most largest group in aphids, comprising near half of the described aphid species. The existence of Macrosiphini could be related to host alternation and various life cycle. Since the phylogenetic relationship of the tribe Macrosiphini has been still controversial, we analyzed Bayesian phylogeny (BP) and Maximum-likelihood (ML) based on molecular data (cytochrome oxidase I, tRNA-leucine+cytochrome oxidase II, 16S ribosomal RNA and elongation factor-1 alpha gene), and compared with the Shaposhnikov (1998) 's subtribal division: Macrosiphina, Myzian, Anuraphidina and Liosomatinae. Analyses for host range association with the morphological characters (e.g. Siphunculus and antennal tubercle on head) correspond to the tendency of host range radiation in the tribe Macrosiphini.
2012.05 구독 인증기관·개인회원 무료
The landmass of Cambodia is located in the Southern portion of Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia which landscape is characterized by a low-lying central plain, eastern highlands, southwestern upland blocks and northern plain of sandstones. The low lands and small mountain clefs of Cambodia is known for deep tropical rain forest which flourish wide range of plants and animals that are mostly concentrated in the “Tonle Sap" range. On the evidence of our investigation it suggests that the evergreen forest of Cambodia suit common fauna with tropical Africa, Indo-pacific region and its adjacent neighbouring countries (Distant, 1904; 1911; Schuh, 1979, 1984; Yasunaga, 2010; Duwal et al., 2010). From the survey data 2010- 2012 (April) more than 30 species of subfamily Phylinae of genera: Acrorrhinium Noualhier, 1895; Alloeomimus Reuter, 1910; Atractotomus Fieber, 1858; Biliranoides Schuh, 1984; Campylomma Reuter, 1878; Decomia Poppius, 1915; Hallodapus Fieber, 1858; Lasiolabops Poppius, 1914; Malaysiamiroides Schuh, 1984; Papuamimus Schuh, 1984, Pilophorus Hahn, 1826; Sthenaridea Reuter, 1885; Tytthus Fieber, 1864, etc. with some new species are found. Therefore it is suggested that Cambodian climate and flora shelter members of Oirental fauna included in most tribes of the subfamily Phylinae; Auricillocorini, Hallodapini, Leucophoropterini, Phylini and Pilophorini. Of course this study is not enough for to clarify the phylinae fauna of Cambodia, but it's a preliminary data for further accomplishment in the study of phyline bugs from this region which is expected to be distributed for about 250-300 species.
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