Since Linneaus (1758) named 4,162 species of living organism, 1.75 milion species have been described and named. It is less than 20% of the commonly accepted estimates of 10 million species on the planet earth. An average of 7,000 species per year was described during last 250 years, and, at this rate of species description, it will take another 1400 years to complete documentation of them. Who will do it? The real facing problem is the number of trained and practising taxonomists is declining worldwide at a time when demands for taxonomic science are increasing. A recent estimate suggests that the number of professional taxonomists worldwide is only 4,000-6,000 (Haas and Hauser, 2006). How about the situation is in Korea? In addition, the change of weather and the global warming accelerates more frequent invasion of harmful subtropical species, and taxonomist’s activity is needed more than ever. In shortly speaking, we are facing with a taxonomic “crisis” with erosion of taxonomy during last decades. The major reason is maybe that systematics has made little impact on the science with a narrow intellectual perspective, and most taxonomists have become accustomed to working on their speciality taxon without concern for relating their work to other broader environmental and societal issues in the facing with the global warming; e.g., invasive species, quarantine, use of bioresources, and ecosystem services. There is no question that taxonomy is the fundamental disciplines of biology, however, first of all, taxonomists should realize that how their research is related to other related sciences and how they make collaborative works. Especially, the basic taxonomic knowledge and skills generated by taxonomists is more needed to cope with the change of weather, due to the global warming which make critical change of the ecological structure in nature.
In the presentation, the strategy for innovation of the living organism on our planet, with a crisis of taxonomy, will be discussed, and emphasized how taxonomists serve and contribute to other related topics. In addition, author will introduce his acitivity for innovation works on Lepidoptera, representing more than 500 new species and 23 new genera of moths described worldwide during last 40 years of his taxonomic research. The total number of new species described in Korea by him is 104 species, including 57 species of Gelechiidae, and more than 400 species and 22 new genera in the subtropical region, including Thailand, Vietnam, and New Guinea. Will it be possible to exceed 500 insect species described worldwide by a taxonomist in future?
The highabundance and impact on honeybees of the Asian hornet Vespa velutina var. nigrithorax have caused great concern among European public authorities and beekeepers. The species was reported for the first time in France in 2005 and spread out across 66 European districts (ca. 360 000 km 2 ) within 7 years (INPN, 2012; Rome et al., 2013). Its arrival was reported in 2010 in Northern Spain, in 2011 in Portugal and Belgium and in 2013 in Italy. Its wider expansion in Europe is soon to be expected.
We discuss here the advances of the collaborative research project initiated in 2008 in France.
1. The potential invasion risk of the species was assessed using modeling tools of climatic suitability (Villemant et al., 2011, Barbet-Massin et al., 2013). Interestingly, the potential distribution of V. v. nigrithorax matches the current distribution of another invasive social wasp, the German yellow jacket, Vespula germanica (Beggs et al., 2011).
2. Apartfrom reported damages on hives, little is known on the biology of V. velutina throughout its native Asian range. In the invaded range, the impact of V. v. nigrithorax on the diversity and biomass of the invertebrate fauna is under study. Preliminary results reported a diversified diet varying among seasons and habitat types.
3. The genetic variability between individuals of V. v. nigrithorax from France and Asia was assessed in order to describe the history of its invasion. The analysis has evidenced a low variability among the invasive population, which indicates a single introduction of one or more queens. The sampling of specimens in France and in the area of origin has been extended to confirm this hypothesis and the most probable area of origin (Arca, 2012).
Given the potential economic and biological impact of V. v. nigrithorax, a better understanding of its invasion dynamics is necessary to predict regions at risk, hence to help with planning dedicated control measures, a prerequisite for replacing the reactive nature of current solutions with a proactive, predictive approach.
최근 기후변화와 농업환경변화로 돌발 병해충잡초의 발생량이 증가하여 55종 에 이르며 기압골형성, 기류변화 등으로 애멸구 등 새로운 이동성 해충의 출현이 증 가하고 있는 실정이다. 평균기온 상승으로 아열대성 병해충의 발생량도 증가하고 있으며 산림의 식생이 변화하여 산림해충이 과수원 등으로 이동하여 작물을 가해 하는 빈도가 증가하고 있다. 한편으로는 경제 규모가 커짐에 따라 우리나라도 국가 간 농산물 교역이 활발해짐에 따라 외래 병해충 잡초의 유입량이 증가하고 있어 2013년도까지 322종의 병해충 잡초가 해외에서 국내로 유입된 실정이다. 농산물 검역건수를 살펴볼 때, 2000년대 30만건 정도였던 농산물 검역건수가 2012년도에 는 약 420만건으로 증가하였고 이에따라 수입농산물에서 발견되는 병해충수도 2000년도에 6,233건에서 2012년도에는 9,824건으로 가파르게 증가하고 있는 실 정이다. 한편 현재까지 발견된 약제저항성 병해충잡초 종수는 70여건에 이르고 있 다. 이에 농촌진흥청에서는 기후변화와 사회경제적 변화에 맞추어 새로운 변해충 관리 전략을 수립하게 되었고 그 대표적인 것이 국가농작물병해충 관리시스템 (NCPMS; http://ncpms.rda.go.kr)과 동북아국가간이동병해충예찰기구(ARMIVS; http://www.amivs.org/amivs/)이다. 이들 두 개의 기구를 통해 국내적으로는 돌발 병해충이나 국가관리병해충에 조기대응하는 시스템을 상시가동하고 있으며, 동 아시아적으로는 국가간의 이동성병해충 발발 상황을 수시로 모니터링하여 국내 병해충 관리에 응용하고 있는 실정이다.
우리나라 농작물의 해충연구는 1906년 설립된 권업모범장에서 이화명충, 멸구 및 매미충류 등 벼의 해충을 중심으로 한 방제 연구로부터 시작 되었다. 그러나 해 방과 6.26동란을 거치면서 농업 연구는 식량문제를 해결하는것이 급선무 였기 때 문에 농산물의 질보다는 양에 중점을 두어 비교적 수량에 직접적인 영향이 적었던 병해충에 관한 연구는 명맥만 유지하였다.
1960년대에는 화학적 방제를 중심으로한 살충제의 효과와 검정에 관한 연구가 수도 해충을 중심으로 활발이 이루어졌다.
1970년대에는 식량증산과 쌀의 자급달성을 위해 농업해충 관련 연구도 거의 벼 해충 방제에 집중되었으며 특히 통일계 품종을 육성 보급하면서 비배관리와 병해 충의 집중방제등 급격한 재배 양식의 변화로 해충에서는 비래해충인 멸구류, 혹명 나방 등과 저온성해충인 굴파리류, 벼잎벌레 등 저온성 해충의 발생이 지역적으로 증가 되었다. 결과적으로 통일계 품종의 확대보급은 벼 해충상에 큰 변화를 가져와 벼멸구, 흰등멸구, 혹명나방, 벼줄기굴파리의 발생이 크게 증가하였고 벼애나방, 애멸구, 끝동매미충의 발생이 감소하였다.그외 콩에 발생하는 콩나방, 팥나방류 그 리고 옥수수에 발생하는 조명나방, 감자나방, 거세미나방류 등에 관한 연구와 감귤 원에서 발생하는 해충, 채소에서 담배나방 등 해충연구의 범위가 식량작물 위주에 서 원예작물로 다양화 되어 저변이 점차 확대되었다.
1980년대 후반에 들어서면서 주곡인 쌀의 자급달성과 국민 생활 수준 향상으로 과실류나 채소류의 수요가 급증하여 농업해충의 연구방향도 수도는 물론 전작물, 원예작물, 특용작물 및 사료작물 등에 발생하는 해충의 생태와 생력방제, 그리고 농산물의 품질향상을 위한 기초연구에 치충하였다.
해충연구에 있어서벼품종과 재배양식의 변화로 해충의 발생상도 크게 변하여 애멸구, 이화명충, 끝동매미충 등의 발생은 크게 줄어 들었고 벼멸구 흰등멸구 , 혹 명나방 등 비래해충과 벼 굴파리류, 벼잎벌레등 저온성 해충 들이 주요해충으로 등장하였다.
80년대 후반 농산물의 수입개방화에 따라 국제교역이 증가 되면서 외국의 경계 해충이 국내에 들어오기 시작하였는데 1988년 벼물바구미가 국내에 침입하여 경 남 하동과 전남 광양에서 최초 피해가 발견되어 집중적인 연구가 이루어졌다. 따라서 1980년대는 주곡인 쌀의 자급달성을 계기로 새로운 소득작물 해충연구 중심으 로 전환하는 중요한 시기로 특히 채소재배 양식이 노지에서 시설재배로 단지화되 고 주년 생산 체계가 이루어지면서 채소 해충의 발생 양상이 크게 변화하였다. 이시 기에 복숭아혹진딧물, 배추좀나방, 달팽이 등 새로운 종 들이 주요 해충으로 등장 하였다. 또한 소득작물 해충 중 발생이 많고 피해가 심한 파밤나방, 담배거세미나 방, 차먼지응애, 열매꼭지나방, 호박과실파리,, 천궁길쭉바구미등에 관한 연구가 활발하였다.
1990년대는작물보호 연구의 일대 변혁기로 벼 해충 중심이 연구에서 시설재배 작물을 중심으로 한 원예작물과 새로운 소득작물의 개발 ,수출 유망작물에 발생하 는 해충 및 외래 유입 해충에 대한 연구가 집중적으로 이루어 졌다. 꽃노랑총채벌레 가 1993년 제주 꽈리고추에서 발견되고, 오이총채벌레 역시 같은해에 발견되어 감 자에 극심한 피해를 주었으며, 1994년 광주광역시 광산구 평동에서 시설재배하던 거베라에서 발견된 아메리카잎굴파리는 기주범위가 넓어 지금은 시설내 주요 해 충으로 정착했다. 이들은 열대 및 아열대성 해충으로 시설등 재배환경의 변화와 이 상기후에 따른 지구 온난화와 무관하지 않은 것으로 판단된다. 또한 최근에 노린재 류 등 과거에 잠재해충으로 관리가 수월했던 해충 들의 밀도가 높아져 피해를 주고 있다.
2000년대 기후변화 및 농업 환경 변화에 따라 작물 재배 중에발생하는 돌발해충 중 과수와 일반 농작물에 큰 피해를 주고 있는 잡식성인 갈색여치, 2004년 최초발 생이 추정되어 현재 경기, 충청,강원, 경북지역을 거쳐 전남지방까지 피해를 주고 있는 꽃매미, 2010년에 충남과 전북 일원에 발생되어 2011년에는 전남 경기지방까 지 피해를 주고 있는 갈색날개매미충, 그리고 신부날개매미충 역시 전남 참다래, 차 등과 경기도 인삼에 발생하여 피해를 주고 있다. 유럽, 북남미 등에서 과수의 주 요해충인 미국선녀벌레의 피해도 국내에서 점차 확산 되고 있어 이런 새로운 해충 들에 대한 지속적인 연구 뿐만 아니라 완두콩바구미, 채소바구미 같은 이미 국내에 정착한 외래 해충과 기후변화에 따른 열대 도입과수들의 재배 확대에 따른 새로운 해충 그리고 잠재해충이던 산림해충의 농업해충화에 대해서도 깊은 연구 및 관리 체계가 확립되어야 할것이다.
Impacts of climate change
IPPC report (2007) predicts that by the end of 21 st century there will be an expected climate change. Evidences include increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global mean sea level, and that most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas conditions. Other global manifestations of climate change are the natural hazards that are becoming more frequent and more intense such as more floods, more droughts, more intense storms, typhoons and more heatwaves. Since the 1970’s, more intense and longer drought have been observed over wider areas, particularly in the tropics. Frequency of heavy rains has also increased over most land areas.
In the Philippines, analysis of the observed climatic data showed that there has been an increased in annual mean temperature by 0.57 o C. In terms of maximum and minimum temperatures, the increases have been 0.35 and 0.94 o C. Results of analysis of trends of tropical cyclone occurrence showed that an average of 20 tropical cyclones per year, that there still no indication of increase in the frequency, but with slight increase in the number of tropical cyclones with maximum sustained winds of greater than 150kph. The analysis of trends of extreme daily temperatures and extreme daily rainfall indicate significant increase in number of hot days but decrease of cool nights, and those of rainfall (extreme rainfall intensity and frequency) are not clear, both in magnitude and direction.
The findingson the analysis of future climates showed that all areas of the Philippines will get warmer especially in the summer months. Annual mean temperatures (average of maximum and minimum temperatures) in all areas in the country are expected to rise by 0.9 o C in 2020 by 1.8 to 2.2 o C in 2050. In terms of seasonal rainfall change, generally, there is a substantial spatial difference in the projected changes in rainfall in 2020 and 2050 in most parts of the Philippines, with reduction in rainfall in most provinces during the summer season making the usually dry season drier. During the southwest monsoon season, larger increases in rainfall is expected in provinces in Luzon (0.9% to 63%) and Visayas (2% to 22%) but generally decreasing trends in most of the provinces in Mindanao in 2050. However, projections for extreme events in 2020 and 2050 showed that hot temperatures (indicated by the number of days with maximum temperature exceeding 35 o C) will continue to become more frequent, number of dry days will increase in all parts of the country and heavy daily rainfall events will also continue to increase in number in Luzon and Visayas.
Climate change effects on rice
Increase in temperature may lead to yield reduction as caused by heat stress, decreased sink formation, shortened growing period, and increase maintenance respiration. Given the 10% yield reduction for every 1 o C increase in temperature, an estimated 1.5 M M/t of rice harvest will be lost. Since the Philippines is considered to be vulnerable to extreme meteorological events like typhoons, floods and droughts, it was estimated that approximately 84% of the about 2.32 M hectares of rice land will be affected by climate change.
Climate change effect on insect pests and natural enemies
Temperature is very important factor influencing insect behavior, distribution, development, survival and reproduction (Bale et. al., 2002). In Japan, it has been estimated that with a 2 o C temperature increase insects might experience one to five additional life cycles per season (Yamamura and Kiritani 1998). Moreover, climate change may affect the population dynamics of arthropods that will lead to change in the species composition of ecosystem, pests’ migration and change in the geographic distribution of pests. Naturally occurring biological control is expected to become a more important control tactic in the future although, warming might also have a negative effect on some natural enemies such as hymenopterans and small predators. Furthermore, there are attempts to correlate relative humidity with insect development and survival. A study showed that the population of Nilaparvata lugens reached high levels when plants of the Peta variety were transplanted close together, probably because of the high relative humidity created in the insect’s habitat (IRRI, 1973). A more detailed study was conducted in the IRRI phytotron and results showed that that N. lugens had high survival in 50-60% relative humidity as compared to 80% relative humidity (IRRI, 1976).
Work in the Philippines showed that more insect pests were observed in wet season as compared to dry season (Calora and Ferino, 1968; Hsieh, 1972; Ferino, 1968; Alam, 1971). Hence, if there will be more frequent and severe climate extremes like more rainfall and flooding, some pests may become more serious. On the other hand, a long drought followed by rainfall may cause outbreak of locust, armyworms, and leaffolders.
Adaptation to adverse impacts of climate change
In the Philippines, rice varieties for adverse environments are available such as submergence and drought-tolerant varieties. The use of aerobic rice production system maybe useful in the future especially if there will be limited water supply since in this technology, the water use is only half of that of lowland rice systems.
In rice insect pest management, understanding the impact of climate change to rice plant, insects pests and their natural enemies is very important in preparing for and adapting management strategies against pests that may become established due to changes in the environment. It is also necessary to assess pest problems in vulnerable areas affected by climate change. The applications of agro-meteorological information using modern information communication tools may provide timely provision of weather and climate information for farmers use.
Climate and its variability characterize abiotic environment for species on the earth. Increased seasonality in higher latitude and/or pronounced diurnal temperate range in higher ground as well as decreasing mean temperature are major climate gradients to which organisms must adapt through physiological and behavioral plasticity. IPCC AR5 pointed out that climate variability and its regional behavior remain top concerns, which may well pose great challenges to climate change biology. We use Nicrophorus nepalensis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) a wide-distributed burying beetle in low latitude Asia as model species to investigate possible impacts of climate variability on species performance. N. nepalensis is a scavenging species exploring carcasses for feeding and reproduction. To consider their breeding performance, we baited N. nepalensis by small mouse carcasses and measured the rate at which they successfully buried the carcasses into soil. We look at climate variability along elevational gradients of intact forest and open habitats exposure to agricultural activities. The probability of successful breeding is higher in intact forest than that in open habitat with unimodal fashion of peak at 1800m. We found that local climate variability, more specifically, the diurnal temperature range (DTR), impedes successful breeding of N. nepalensis. Despite variable environmental conditions associated with habitat opening, such as increased soil density, reduced leaf litter amount and relative humidity, enlarged DTR seems to be the principal cause of failure. The negative effects of greater DTR on breeding success were confirmed by laboratory experiments. DTR remains stable in primary forests, in contrast to its increase in more disrupted habitats along the same transect. Reducing vegetation cover exposes mountains to radiant heating, a trend with significant elevational effect, resulting in large DTR in high lands. Although N. nepalensis is widely distributed in the mountain areas, non-forest patches support only part of their life cycle, different function groups to support decomposition process at open habitats are expected. Climate change and habitat degradation are among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. Our study highlights land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) in altering local temperature variability and reinforces the concern of its interplay with climate change.
The mean global surface temperatures have increased since the late 19th century by approximately 0.3-0.6 o C (IPCC, 2007). The linear warming trend over the last 50 years is nearly double that of the last 100 years. The impact of climate warming on insects was studied using the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula as a model insect. This bug is known as a cosmopolitan agricultural pest that damages diverse crop plants worldwide. Effects of climate warming on insects include distribution, abundance, phenology, voltinism, physiology, behaviour, and community structure. It should be noted here that climate warming affects insects not only directly but also indirectly through interaction of species in ecosystem.
1. Northward range expansion of N. viridula in Japan.
Past and current limits of the distribution range of N. viridula were compared (Tougou et al., 2009). It was found that the climate warming promoted northward range expansion of N. viridula by providing favourable overwintering conditions close to the specie’s range limit. The past and the current limits of the distribution range of N. viridula in central Japan were investigated. In the early 1960s, the northern limit of the species’ range was in Wakayama Prefecture and was limited by a +5 o C isothermal line for the mean January temperature. Forty five years later (2006–2007), a new survey in Wakayama and five neighbouring prefectures demonstrated that this northern limit shifted northward by 85km, at a rate of 19.0km/decade. The shift northward was likely promoted by milder winter conditions. The mean January–February temperature in the region was 1.03–1.91ºC higher in 1998–2007 than in 1960–1969. In the 1960s, the mean January temperature exceeded +5 ºC only in Wakayama city, but by now it has surpassed +5 ºC in Osaka and Tsu cities, located further north (52 and 59 km respectively), which corresponds to the current distribution of N. viridula. The number of cold days (with mean temperature below +5ºC) also significantly decreased, while the annual lowest temperature significantly increased. N. viridula was found mostly at or close to those locations where (1) the mean January temperature exceeded +5ºC, (2) the mean number of cold days did not exceed 26 during January–February, and (3) where the mean annual lowest temperature did not drop below –3.0 ºC. The general linear model shows that the mean January temperature and number of cold days are the most important factors controlling the northern limit of distribution of N. viridula.
All the climatic data suggest that over the last 45 years environmental conditions have become more favourable for overwintering of N.viridula at many locations in central Japan. This has likely promoted the northward spread of the species, representing the direct response of the species to climate warming. A sympatrically distributed congeneric N. antennata is responding to the warming by retreat from the ocean coast towards cooler elevated habitats, which might be a complex response to elevated temperature and interspecific mating with N. viridula. This range expansion of N. viridula is now accelerating the extinction of N. antennata by the infertile interspecific copulation.
2. Ecophysiological responses of N. viridula to simulated warming.
The effect of simulated climate change on N. viridula was studied close to the species’ northern range limit in Japan (Musolin et al., 2010). Insects from the same egg masses were reared for 15 months in 10 consecutive series under quasi-natural (i.e. outdoor) conditions and in a transparent incubator, in which climate warming was simulated by adding 2.5ºC to the outdoor temperature. The warming strongly affected all life-history and phenological parameters. In the spring, the simulated warming advanced the timing of body colour changes and post-diapause reproduction. In the early summer, it increased egg production and accelerated nymphal development. In the late summer (the hottest season), the effect of the simulated warming was strongly deleterious: nymphs developed slowly, suffered higher mortality and had difficulties during final moulting; the emerged females were smaller, some exhibited abnormal cuticle, produced fewer eggs and had a decreased life span.
Our current studies are going to clarify that such an adverse effect of high temperature is caused by the decrease in bacterial symbiont which is harboured in the midgut of stink bugs. As in many phytophagous heteropteran species, N. viridula possesses a number of sac-like outgrowths, called crypts, in a posterior section of the midgut, wherein a specific bacterial symbiont is harbored. In previous studies on N. viridula from Hawaiian populations, experimental elimination of the symbiont caused little fitness defects in the host insect (Prado, et.al., 2006, Prado et al., 2009). N. viridula from Japanese populations consistently harbor the same gammaproteobacterial gut symbiont. However, in this case, contrary to the previous works, experimental sterilization of the symbiont resulted in severe nymphal mortality, indicating an obligate host-symbiont relationship (Tada et al., 2011). Considering the worldwide host-symbiont association and those experimental data, N. viridula is considered to be generally and obligatorily associated with the gut symbiont, while the symbiont effect on the host performance may be different among geographic populations.
In the autumn, the warming accelerated nymphal development, resulted in larger female size, affected the timing of the diapause-associated adult body colour change from green to russet and enhanced preparation for overwintering. Larger females had higher winter survival rate than smaller females. The warming strongly increased survival rate in both size classes and allowed smaller females to reach the same winter survival rate as larger females had under the quasi-natural conditions. The winter survival also differed between the green and dark-coloured females under the quasi-natural, but not under the warming conditions. However, under the warming conditions, green females survived the winter even better than dark-coloured females did under the quasi-natural conditions. Moreover, the warming shortened the life span of females from the summer generations and prolonged it in those from the autumn generation.
It is concluded that even a moderate temperature increase (+2.5 ºC) in the future is likely to have a complex influence upon insects, strongly affecting many of their life-history and phenological parameters.
Five species of the subfamily Cicadinae are typically found in urban areas of central Korea, including Cryptotympana atrata, Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata, Hyalessa fuscata, Meimuna mongolica, and Meimuna opalifera. These species form multi-species choruses. We hypothesized that there is a negative relationship between dominance of choruses among cicada species. We tested this hypothesis by conducting the 24-h recording experiments in four localities: Gawcheon, Jamsil, Ewha University, and Yangpyeong. Based on the enumeration surveys of exuviae, the results of 24-h recordings showed that choruses of C. atrata and H. fuscata were negatively correlated with other in Jamsil and Ewha University, but were positively correlated with other in Gawcheon and Yangpyeong. Thus, it seemed unclear cicada species competed with each other negatively over. Males of C. atrata produced calling songs usually during the day at temperatures typically higher than 28 C°. However, males of H. fuscata produced calling songs throughout the day at a wide range of temperatures. As a result, the chorus of C. atrata dominated during the day, but that of H. fuscata in urban areas where the densities of C. atrata were sufficiently high.
과거의 전통적인 곤충생태학 연구에서는 가설 검정에 적합하게 정의된 특정 시 간 및 공간에서 조사된 정성적 또는 정량적 정보에 기반을 두고 분석하였다. 또한 작물 재배 지역을 포함한 다양한 주변 경관을 가진 넓은 지역을 대상으로 한 해충 관리 전략을 수립한다는 것이 기술적으로 어려웠다. 2000년 이후 생태학적 접근 방 법들은 생물학, 화학, 물리학, 수학 및 공학과 같은 학문들과 직접 또는 간접적으로 융합되는 경향을 보이고 있으며, 이러한 학문들의 비약적인 발전이 과거에는 넓은 지역에서 수집하기 어렵거나 불가능했던 정보(식생정보, 작물정보, 저항성 정보, 개체군 집단유전학 정보 등과 같은 생물적 정보와 토양정보, 기상정보 등과 같은 무생 물적 정보) 취득을 가능하게 하였다. 최근에는 지리정보시스템과 (GIS; Geographic Information System), 공간분포분석기법 (geospatial analysis), 공간통계학 (geostatistics) 등을 활용하여 획득된 정보를 재수집, 분리, 결합, 분석한 후 이들과 특정 해충 개체군과의 상호 관계를 규명함으로써 다양하고 복잡한 미래 환경 변화 에 따른 특정 해충 개체군 밀도 및 분포 변화 예측이 가능하게 되었다. 위와 같은 접 근 방법을 사용한다면 보다 효과적이고 합리적인 광역 지역 기반 해충 관리 전략을 수립할 수 있을 것으로 예측되며, 본 발표에서는 이들을 구현하기 위한 집단유전학 적 정보 구축, harmonic radar, 무인항공기(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), GIS 등의 활용 예들을 살펴보고 이들을 활용한 해충 관리 전략 수립의 가능성을 제시해 보고 자 하였다.
Thrips palmi Karny was introduced and first recorded in 1993 in Korea. This species has become a serious pest of vegetable and ornamental crops. CLIMEX simulation was applied to T. palmi to predict the potential geographic distribution in Korea under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario. In the CLIMEX simulation, ecoclimatic index (EI) was calculated, and compared in each simulated year and each simulated location. The map comparisons showed a good agreement between simulated and present distributions of T. palmi, indicating that the CLIMEX model was well explained and appropriate for prediction of future distributions of this species in Korea. In near future, until a year of 2020, all the western and eastern parts of Korea showed favorable to marginal suitability for T. palmi populations in fields. After the year of 2040, the potential distributions are shifted from no persistent to favorable for establishment and persistence from coastal to interior of the Korean peninsula except a north-eastern interior region which is the northernmost part of high mountains (Baekdu-Daegan) area in South Korea. Based on simulation results, T. palmi would overcome its weather restriction in near future under a severe climate change scenario, thus, pest management measures and strategies should be re-constructed in Korea, with further studies including interspecific competition and understanding ecosystem change due to climate change.
Cimicomorpha is one of the most diverse groups in true bugs comprising more than 20,000 species, which attract a great attention for a variety of life-history strategies as well as for agricultural and medical aspects as followed: traumatic insemination in the bed bugs and their relatives (Cimicoidea), diverse feedinghabits in the plant bugs (Miridae), parasitism and blood-feeding in the bed bugs and their relatives (Cimicidae and Polyctenidae), agricultural pests in the lace bugs and the plant bugs (Tingidae and Miridae), biological control agents in the minute pirate bugs and the plant bugs (e.g., the genus Orius), disease transmission in the Triatominae (Reduviidae), and micro-habitat transitions in the assassin bugs and the flower bugs (Reduviidae and Anthocoridae). In this talk, I conducted the phylogenetic analyses of the Cimicomorpha based on the molecular data. Additionally, through the phylogenetic comparative analyses, I also present the evolutionary history of the specialized biological traits of the Cimicomorpha.
The early investigations of Russian Far East Trichoptera is connected with A.V. Martynov (1879-1938) who is recognized as a “Father of Russian Trichopterists”. About hundred species described by Martynov were reported from Russian Far East (RFE). Then, I.M. Levanidova (1914-2005) devoted her life to study caddisflies of Pacific Russia and demonstrated the high biodiversity of Trichoptera fauna for the region. If the list of Russian Trichoptera includes 641 species in 148 genera of 28 families of caddisflies (Ivanov, 2010), the Far East of Russia consists of 435 species of caddis belonging to 103 genera of 26 families, it is about 67,8% of Trichoptera fauna of all Russia (Table). Nevertheless, specialists estimate that the real quantity of species should be much more as the majority of the territory still isn't investigated rather well.
The core of RFE Trichoptera fauna the is represented by species of Palaearhearctic subregion of Palaearctic Region and species distributed in Eastern Palaearctic. Transpalaearctic and Holartic species are presented in much less number. Connection of North Pacific Russia with North America through the ancient Bering Bridge is traced based on caddisfly fauna. The fauna of Kamchatka is comparatively poor in comparison with continental. The fauna of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands reflects, on the one hand, communication with eastern Asian continent, with another ? connection with the territory of the Japanese Archipelago and coastal territories of South-East Asia.
Taxonomic difficulties of East Russia Trichoptera fauna studying is planning to resolve owing to complex investigation of morphology, distribution, genetic characteristics of caddisflies in cooperation with the international teams of trichopterists of USA and countries of East and North East Asia.
Taxonomic list of the families and genera of Trichoptera in Russian Far East (Pacific Russia and Yakutia)
The purpose of the present study is to monitor diverse herbivore’s feeding activity in two localities, Mt. Jirisan National Park, a Korea LTER site and Mt. Seungdalsan, Muan, Jeonnam. We selected 11 tree species at two localities by differing elevations (> 200, 300, 600, 900, 1200m). We measured the herbivore’s feeding activity by an indirect method that calculates feeding area per leaf by diverse but unknown herbivores (ankertrass area) every two weeks from April to July. We found that the peak and duration differ along the elevation and locality: at a low elevation site (>300m), pattern of ankertrass area increased continuously from 16th Julian week to 21st week; at middle elevation site (600m), pattern of ankertrass area increased continuously from 20th Julian week to 23rd week; and at high elevation site (>600m), pattern of ankertrass area sharply increased from 22nd Julian week to 25th week. This showed that the timing of peak of herbivore activity exhibited a time-lag by elevations. We expected that the peak or duration of herbivore activity can be changed followed by environmental change and this can be monitored in a long term ecological monitoring.
The Cerambycidae is a very diverse family in Chrysomeloidea (Insecta: Coleoptera), and the members are commonly called as longhorn beetles, long-horned beetles or longicorn beetles.
The family is comprised of approximately 25,000 described species in nine subfamilies worldwide, and 311 species are known from Korean insect fauna. Most species are associated with woods and shrubs or live on herbaceous vegetation in open areas. Cerambycid larvae are primarily borers in deadwood. Some species develop in living trees and cause damage on host plants by boring heart wood and making galleries.
As the results of four year field surveys (from 2010 to 2013) and literature review, host plants of 181 species of Korean Cerambycidae are revised, including thirteen new cerambycid-host associations, and more than 179 host plants species of 107 genera in 44 families are compiled. Among them, most common host plants are belonged to mainly four families: Ulmaceae, Pinaceae, Fagaceae and Betulaceae. Additionally, Acer tegmentosum Maxim. (Aceraceae) is newly recognized as a host plant of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora grabripennis (Motchulsky) in South Korea.
A phase variation has been reported in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila. Compared to a wild type primary form, a secondary form usually lose several physiological and biochemical characters. This study showed that the phase variation of X. nematophila caused a significant alteration in its immunosuppressive activity and subsequent entomopathogenicity. A secondary form of X. nematophila was detected in laboratory colonies and exhibited significant differences in dye absorption and entomopathogenicity. In addition, the secondary form was different in production of eicosanoid-biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) compared to the primary form of X. nematophila. Production of oxindole and p-hydroxypropionic acid was significantly reduced in the culture broth of the secondary form of X. nematophila. The reduced EBI production resulted in significant suppression in the inhibitory effects on a cellular nodule formation and phenoloxidase activity. Culture broth of the primary form of X. nematophila significantly more enhanced the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) than the culture broth of the secondary form. Furthermore, this study developed a high efficient ‘Dual Bt-Plus’ to control both lepidopteran insect pests of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua by mixing two effective Bt strains along with the addition of potent bacterial metabolites or 100-fold concentrated X. nematophila culture broth.
예쁜꼬마선충은 흙속에서 살아가는 선충류로서, 성충의 크기는 약 1mm이고 비 교적 단순한 형태를 지닌 다세포생물로 주변 환경에 따라 기어가는 행동과 유영하 는 행동을 보인다. 본 연구에서는 예쁜꼬마선충의 유영하는 행동패턴을 구현하기 위하여 잠입경계(IB)법을 이용하여 비압축성 나비어-스톡스 방정식에 기반한 이 차원 모델을 수립하였다. IB방법은 1972년 C. S. Peskin(뉴욕대학교)이 심장 안의 혈류에 대한 모델링과 시뮬레이션을 하면서 처음 개발한 것으로, 근래에 점성이 있 는 비압축성 유체가 경계구조와의 상호작용에 의해 생기는 문제들을 다루기 위해 서 공학, 생리학, 의학 등의 여러 학문에서 많이 쓰이고 있는 방법이다. IB 방법의 장 점은 주어진 구조에서 생기는 경계조건을 이용하여 움직이는 경계 구조 문제를 해 결하던 방법들과는 달리 이산화 된 디락-델타 함수를 사용하여 구조의 경계조건 없 이 움직이는 경계 구조 문제를 다룰 수 있다는 장점이 있다. 예쁜꼬마선충의 이차원 모델은 등(dorsal)/배(ventral)를 나타내는 얇은 곡선 형태로 구현되었고 각각의 곡 선을 이루고 있는 점들 사이를 훅의 법칙에 기인한 스프링 형태로 연결하여 경계에 탄성력을 부과하였다. 또한 각각의 스프링을 수동적인 성분과 능동적인 성분의 두 가지 형태로 구분하였고, 능동적인 성분의 길이변화에 의해 등/배 근육의 수축성을 부과하였다. 본 연구를 통해 위와 같이 구성된 모델에 어떠한 패턴의 근육 수축을 주어야 선충모델이 전진, 후진, 그리고 코일링 형태의 유영하는 행동패턴이 구현되 는지 알아본다.
A polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV), is symbiotic to an endoparasitoid wasp, C. plutellae, which specifically parasitizes young larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, delays the larval development and metamorphosis in Plutella xylostella. Nutritional deprivation by the wasp may induce these developmental alterations in growing host. This study focussed on the change of insulin signaling of the parasitized host. The parasitized larvae exhibit a significant suppression in insulin-like peptide (ILP) expression, which was induced only by the injection of the CpBV. Reduced ILP expression significantly increased the blood sugar level (trehalose) level in the parasitized host, which was mimicked by starvation. Foxo was expressed in the parasitized larvae, but localized mostly in the nucleus. Overexpression of ILP gene in the parasitized larvae induced translation of Foxo to cytoplasm and significantly decreased trehalose level in the plasma. Interestingly, the overexpression of ILP gene significantly prevented the successful parasitization and allowed the host metamorphosis.
The caddisfly is an aquatic insects that resembles small moth. Silk is produced by the larvae through a pair of labial silk glands. The larvae, caddisworms, use silk not only to produce ‘capture nets’ to collect food particles from the water environment but also to construct ‘silken cases’ for their shelters in running water. Physically, two different processes of silk-producing systems are reported among the different species of arthropod animals: terrestrial and aquatic silk productions. Although both types of silks can be produced along its sophisticated process through a sequential pathway from silk gland, most of our recent knowledges of silk producing system are dependent on those revealed from the terrestrial animals including silkworms or spiders. Therefore, this experiment was initiated to reveal the fine structural aspects of the silk producing system of larval stage of the caddisfly Hydatophylax nigrovittatusu with light and electron microscopes
Cave-dwelling springtail studies in Korea initiated during 1960s by the Japanese Collembola researcher, R. Yosii, and comprehensive taxonomic studies on Korean Collembola were conducted by B. H. Lee during 1970-1990s wherein the new family Gulgastruridae was established using the type species Gulgastrura reticulosa from the Gossidonggul cave in Gangwon-do, South Korea. Eight families of cave-dwelling Collembola are known in Korea, and the family Tomoceridae is the most abundant and diverse group of cave-dwelling Collembola with 11 known species belonging to 4 genera in Korea. In this study, 12 species of Korean Tomoceridae are reviewed, and 1 new species from the genus Plutomurus and 2 new species from the genus Tomocerus are described.
Insects have a protective exoskeleton consisted with cuticle to adapt various environments and pathogens. Insect cuticle mainly composed of the polysaccharide chitin and numerous of cuticular proteins (CPs). CPs are important for insect cuticle formation, development, and growth because it produces proper combination of mechanical and physical properties of cuticle depend on the regions of an exoskeleton. The largest family of CPs contains a 28-residue motif known as the Rebers-Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. When sequences containing the R&R consensus are aligned, they fall into three groups based on sequence similarity, and these groups tend to correlate with the type of cuticle (soft or hard) from which the proteins are derived. Proteins with the RR-1 motif have been found primarily in soft cuticle, whereas many proteins from rigid cuticle have an extended region of similarity called RR-2.
We recently reportedthat two major CPs, TcCPR18 and TcCPR27 belong to RR-2, are essential for formation of highly sclerotized modified-forewings (elytra) of a beetle. In this study, we performed functional genomics of TcCPR4, which encodes RR-1 motif. The transcript levels of TcCPR4 drastically increased in 3 d-old pupae at when adult cuticle synthesis appears to be begun. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that TcCPR4 protein was detected in the rigid cuticle of elyton and ventral abdomen but not in the flexible cuticle of hindwing and dorsal abdomen of T. castaneum adult. Furthermore, TcCPR4 protein was specifically present at basal side of the procuticle (near the epidermal cells) and vertical canals, whereas TcCPR27 protein was found entire procuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA of TcCPR4 (dsTcCPR4) into late instar larvae had no effect on development and any types of molting such as larval-larval, larval-pupal or pupal-adult. Interestingly, depletion of both TcCPR4 and TcCPR27 transcripts could rescue the elytral cuticle defect and mortality produced by injection of dsTcCPR27 alone. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that depletion of TcCPR4 had abnormal vertical canals in rigid adult cuticle while dsTcCPR27 injection showed less electron-dense-horizontal laminae and vertical canals. Surprisingly, co-injection of dsRNA for TcCPR4 and TcCPR27 exhibited more severe cuticle defect with thinner elytral cuticle and abnormal vertical canals and chtin laminae compared to those from insects treated with dsRNA for each gene. These results suggest that TcCPR4 as a RR-1 is essential structural component in the rigid cuticle of T. castaneum adult.